distinct from whether they are categorized as being old ( Kornadt & Rothermund, 2011 ). Role Models, Sports, and Aging Evidence suggests that perspectives on aging are shaped by culturally shared beliefs about older adults that are formed early in life, which can be shaped by role models (e.g., Hummert
Susan M. Molstad
Male (N=121) and female (N=135) high school girls’ basketball coaches responded to three forced-choice questions related to gender and role modeling. Both genders said they preferred coaching girls to boys. Male coaches thought female athletes preferred a male coach, female coaches thought they preferred a female coach. Coaches of each gender perceived themselves as equal or better role models than their counterparts. Coaches were then asked to rank order the importance of six coaching qualities previously identified as either expressive or instrumental. First they ranked the qualities in importance as they perceived them, then in the order they thought players would rank them. Coaches differed significantly by gender on the rankings of the qualities, as well as their perceptions of how athletes might rank the same qualities. Implications for modeling and young female athletes are discussed in relation to gender differences in these perceptions.
Timothy Baghurst and Beau James Diehl
A coach’s roles and responsibilities vary depending on situational factors. However, several characteristics of a coach are recognized as important for success irrespective of the coaching level or ability of the athletes. Physical role modeling is a characteristic largely forgotten in the literature and coaching standards, yet can have important positive or negative outcomes in athlete performance and coach credibility and well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present a rationale for including physical role modeling within the tenets of coaching roles and responsibilities. Second, practical suggestions are made to demonstrate how physical role modeling can be presented positively, even when physical abilities are limited.
Scott B. Martin, Peggy A. Richardson, Karen H. Weiller, and Allen W. Jackson
During the past decade females have had more opportunities to participate in sports at various levels than ever before. These opportunities and the recognition received due to their success may have changed peoples’ views regarding same-sex role models, perceived parental encouragement, and expectations of success. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore role models, perceived encouragement to participate in youth sport from parents, and sport expectations of adolescent athletes and their parents living in the United States of America. A questionnaire was administered to 426 adolescent athletes who competed in youth sport leagues and to one parent within each family unit (n=426). Chi square analysis indicated significant relationships between athletes’ gender and the gender of their role model and between parents’ gender and the gender of their role model (p = .0001). DM MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate difference for adolescent athletes and their parents on the questions concerning expectations for future athletic success. Post hoc analyses indicated that the athletes were more likely than their parents to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, or professional levels. In addition, boys were more likely than girls to believe that they could play at the college, Olympic, and professional levels.
Janine Coates and Philip B. Vickerman
The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11–16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.
Reuben A. Buford May
It is a generally accepted belief, affirmed in the media, that professional Black male basketball players from the National Basketball Association serve as role models for young Black males. Very little empirical evidence, however, is available about how the young men think about these relationships. Using the concept of role model from social learning theory as a lens, I analyze interview data drawn from a convenience sample of 19 young Black men who participated in high school basketball to investigate the idea of “professional Black male basketball players as role models.” I find that young men do not necessarily accept the “good/bad” role-model dichotomy presented in the media, but rather, they are discerning in their acceptance and rejection of certain role-model attitudes and behaviors.
Ross E. Andersen, Adrian E. Bauman, Shawn C. Franckowiak, Sue M. Reilley, and Alison L. Marshall
This intervention promoted stair use among people attending the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) annual meeting.
All attendees using the stairs or escalators in the main lobby were unobtrusively observed for 3 days and coded for activity choices to get to the second floor. During day 2, a prominent sign stating “Be a role model. Use the stairs!” encouraged point-of-choice decisions favoring stairs over the escalator. The sign was removed on day 3.
16,978 observations were made. Stair use increased from 22.0% on day 1 to 29.3% and 26.8% on days 2 and 3, respectively (P values < .001). Active choices (stair use or walk up escalator) increased from 28.3% on day 1 to 40.1% and 40.2% on subsequent days. Analyses were similar after adjustment for gender, estimated age category, and race.
Relatively few conference attendees were persuaded to model stair-use behavior. Health professionals should be encouraged to be “active living” role models.
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Eric M. Martin, Martha E. Ewing, and Daniel Gould
Significant social agents are thought to play a vital role in youth development (Brustad, Babkes, & Smith, 2001). The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) commissioned a nationwide survey to examine the effect significant social agents had on youth sport behavior. In Phase I, initial data were collected and results were published in the Journal of Coaching Education (2011). The results of the previous analyses were largely descriptive, and further analyses were desired. Therefore, the current study (Phase II) is a secondary but more in-depth data analysis of the initial data collected by the USADA. Phase II analyses (n = 3379, Mage = 12.23, SD = 2.78) revealed that youth sport coaches have the greatest positive influence on youth followed closely by parents, but all of the significant social agents, to different extents, were seen as more positive than negative by youth. Results varied by developmental level, gender, and competitive level. Results, limitations, and practical implications are discussed.