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Bernardo Gialanella, Francesco Grossetti, Marina Mazza, Laura Danna and Laura Comini

Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of disability of the shoulder and, among several diseases of the upper limbs, is considered to be the one with higher costs, whether from a medical, surgical, or insurance point of view. Surgical treatment and repair of chronic condition is indicated when

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Xin Fu, Patrick Shu-hang Yung, Chun Cheong Ma and Hio Teng Leong

The overhead throwing movement has been reported to be the fastest athletic movement performed in sports. 1 During overhead throwing movement, high distraction forces place stress on the rotator cuff tendons and the supporting structures of the shoulder and result in shoulder pathologies. 2 These

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Aaron Turner

Key Points ▸ Scapular dyskinesis is often present in patients with an existing shoulder injury. ▸ The best conservative treatment for rotator cuff tears remains unclear. ▸ Treatment of scapular dyskinesis improves dysfunction associated with rotator cuff tears. Scapular dyskinesis affects the

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Jason Brumitt, Marcey Keefer Hutchison, Dan Kang, Zach Klemmer, Mike Stroud, Edward Cheng, Neil Patrick Cayanan and Sheldon Shishido

applying BFR to the upper extremities can lead to significant strength and CSA changes of the pectoralis major and the triceps; however, to date, there are no studies that have assessed the benefits of BFR to the rotator cuff. Weakness of one or more of the rotator cuff muscles is a common feature of

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Michael E. Powers

This paper reviews the role of the rotator cuff during two key phases of the pitching sequence and presents a training program for these muscles. The program uses a periodization design consisting of three stages, beginning with a high-resistance/low-repetition eccentric strengthening stage. This is followed by a low-resistance/high-repetition stage for training muscular endurance. The core exercises for these two stages are prone external rotation in the 90/90 position, prone horizontal abduction, side-lying D2 flexion pattern, supine internal rotation in the 90/90 position, prone elevation with 100° of shoulder abduction and external rotation, and standing scapular plane elevation. The final stage of the program uses high-speed functional exercises: 90/90 external rotation, 90/90 internal rotation, D2 PNF flexion pattern, D2 PNF extension pattern, supine plyometric 90/90 internal rotation with a medicine ball, and the “arm whip” through the D2 PNF flexion pattern. The goal of this program is to prepare the muscles for the stresses of pitching and prevent shoulder injuries.

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Anthony C. Santago II, Meghan E. Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J. Tuohy, Gary G. Poehling, Michael T. Freehill and Katherine R. Saul

function due to age-related declines in strength. 2 , 3 Further, older adults employ compensatory kinematic strategies, such as decreasing their thoracohumeral elevation angle 4 when performing upper limb tasks. 4 – 7 These age-related declines can be exacerbated by a rotator cuff tear

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James J. Irrgang, Susan L. Whitney and Christopher D. Harner

Shoulder pain in throwing athletes is reviewed. The anatomy and function of the rotator cuff and the biomechanics of the throwing mechanism are described. Physical examination for rotator cuff injuries, treatment considerations, and a protocol are presented. Failure to recognize glenohumeral instability may limit the success of nonoperative management of rotator cuff injuries in throwing athletes. This article provides a comprehensive review of some of the underlying causes of rotator cuff pathology in throwing athletes. Rotator cuff injuries in throwing athletes are closely associated with glenohumeral instability. The role of glenohumeral instability in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff injuries is described.

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Rodney Y. L. Wong, Patrick S. H. Yung and H. T. Leong

Softball is one of the most popular sports in recent decades. Rotator cuff tendinopathy is one of the most frequently reported overuse injuries in softball players, accounting for approximately 10% of all injuries recorded during softball competitions and practices. 1 Rotator cuff tendinopathy is

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Fábio Carlos Lucas de Oliveira, Amanda L. Ager and Jean-Sébastien Roy

causes of an abnormal reduction of the AHD, compressing the structures crossing this critical zone, 6 such as the subacromial bursa, the rotator cuff (RC) tendons, and the long head of the biceps. These structures are common sites for inflammation and degeneration with shoulder disorders, 7 such as RC

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Kathleen A. Swanik, Kellie Huxel Bliven and Charles Buz Swanik


There are contradictory data on optimal muscle-activation strategies for restoring shoulder stability. Further investigation of neuromuscular-control strategies for glenohumeral-joint stability will guide clinicians in decisions regarding appropriate rehabilitation exercises.


To determine whether subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor (anteroposterior force couple) muscle activation differ between 4 shoulder exercises and describe coactivation ratios and individual muscle-recruitment characteristics of rotator-cuff muscles throughout each shoulder exercise.






healthy, physically active men, age 20.55 ± 2.0 y.


4 rehabilitation exercises: pitchback, PNF D2 pattern with tubing, push-up plus, and slide board.

Main Outcomes Measures:

Mean coactivation level, coactivation-ratio patterns, and level (area) of muscle-activation patterns of the subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor throughout each exercise.


Coactivation levels varied throughout each exercise. Subscapularis activity was consistently higher than that of the infraspinatus and teres minor combined at the start of each exercise and in end ranges of motion. Individual muscle-recruitment levels in the subscapularis were also different between exercises.


Results provide descriptive data for determining normative coactivation-ratio values for muscle recruitment for the functional exercises studied. Differences in subscapularis activation suggest a reliance to resist anteriorly directed forces.