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Improved 2000-m Rowing Performance in a Cool Environment With an External Heating Garment

Gavin Cowper, Martin Barwood, and Stuart Goodall

Rowing is a physiologically demanding sport, due to the recruitment of a large muscle mass and work rates near rowers’ maximal physical capacity. 1 , 2 Rowers possess large body dimensions and produce among the largest values of any athlete in the specific parameters of physical fitness, involving

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Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in Male Athletes: A Commentary on Its Presentation Among Selected Groups of Male Athletes

Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton, and Adam S. Tenforde

-restricted” sports, due to the low and changing weight targets and the low energy expenditure of riding. • LEA and DE/ED may contribute to low BMD, impaired mood, compromised strength, and impaired riding performance. Rowers ( Jurimae et al., 2003 ; Slater et al., 2005 ; Vinther et al., 2008 ; Woods et al., 2017

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Eating Disturbances in Competitive Lightweight and Heavyweight Rowers

Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann, and Tanja Legenbauer

Rowing – A Sport With a Higher Risk for Eating Disturbances Despite the fact that lightweight rowing represents a weight-sensitive discipline, little is known about the occurrence of eating disturbances in competitive rowers ( Sykora, Grilo, Wilfley, & Brownell, 1993 ). In rowing, individuals are

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Mental Effort in Elite and Nonelite Rowers

Henrik Herrebrøden, Thomas Espeseth, and Laura Bishop

-tracking data in a physically strenuous sports task. Thus, rowers were invited to use a dynamic rowing ergometer—designed to mimic on-water rowing mechanics—under varying conditions in terms of ML and PL. In a within-subjects design, participants were asked to row at a constant pace (low ML); row at a constant

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Real-Time Feedback on Mechanical Power Output: Facilitating Crew Rowers’ Compliance With Prescribed Training Intensity

Lotte L. Lintmeijer, A.J. “Knoek” van Soest, Freek S. Robbers, Mathijs J. Hofmijster, and Peter J. Beek

comply with the prescribed training loads. In rowing, achieving compliance with prescribed intensity is not trivial because feedback on the rate of metabolic energy consumption cannot be routinely provided to the rowers. Therefore, in current practice, derivatives of the rate of metabolic energy

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A Maximal Rowing-Ergometer Protocol to Predict Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Female Rowers

Oscar B. Mazza, Søren Gam, Mikkel E.I. Kolind, Christian Kiær, Christina Donstrup, and Kurt Jensen

suggested that aerobic metabolic processes were responsible for 88% of total energy production during a 2-km ergometer race simulation (2-km test) in female rowers. Despite rowing competitions being faster nowadays, partly due to better equipment, the balance between anaerobic and aerobic work would still

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Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on 2000-m Rowing Performance

Ruth M. Hobson, Roger C. Harris, Dan Martin, Perry Smith, Ben Macklin, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, and Craig Sale

The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance, as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue.


The authors examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance.


Twenty male rowers (age 23 ± 4 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg, 2000-m personal-best time 409 ± 16 s) completed two 2000-m rowing-ergometer time trials, separated by 48 h. Participants were supplemented before exercise with 0.3 g/kg body mass of SB or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000-m and time taken for each 500-m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH, and base excess were determined preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. Performance data were analyzed using paired t tests, as well as magnitude-based inferences; hematological data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA.


Using paired t tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P = .095). However, using magnitude-based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared with PLA (PLA 412.0 ± 15.1 s, SB 410.7 ± 14.9 s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5 ± 1.2 s faster than PLA in the third 500 m (P = .035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1 ± 1.7 s faster in the fourth 500 m (P = .004; very likely beneficial). All hematological data were different between SB and PLA and were different from preexercise to postexercise.


SB supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000-m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

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Consistency of Pacing and Metabolic Responses During 2000-m Rowing Ergometry

Thomas I. Gee, Duncan N. French, Karl C. Gibbon, and Kevin G. Thompson


This study investigated the pacing strategy adopted and the consistency of performance and related physiological parameters across three 2000-m rowing-ergometer tests.


Fourteen male well-trained rowers took part in the study. Each participant performed three 2000-m rowing-ergometer tests interspersed by 3–7 d. Throughout the trials, respiratory exchange and heart rate were recorded and power output and stroke rate were analyzed over each 500 m of the test. At the completion of the trial, assessments of blood lactate and rating of perceived exertion were measured.


Ergometer performance was unchanged across the 3 trials; however, pacing strategy changed from trial 1, which featured a higher starting power output and more progressive decrease in power, to trials 2 and 3, which were characterized by a more conservative start and an end spurt with increased power output during the final 500 m. Mean typical error (TE; %) across the three 2000-m trials was 2.4%, and variability was low to moderate for all assessed physiological variables (TE range = 1.4−5.1%) with the exception of peak lactate (TE = 11.5%).


Performance and physiological responses during 2000-m rowing ergometry were found to be consistent over 3 trials. The variations observed in pacing strategy between trial 1 and trials 2 and 3 suggest that a habituation trial is required before an intervention study and that participants move from a positive to a reverse-J-shaped strategy, which may partly explain conflicting reports in the pacing strategy exhibited during 2000-m rowing-ergometer trials.

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Rib Stress Injuries Among Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Rowers: A Prospective Epidemiological Study

Caitlin A. Madison, Rod A. Harter, Marie L. Pickerill, and Jeff M. Housman

high prevalence of RSIs among the female collegiate rowers. ▸ Aggressive symptom-based management strategies were implemented upon concern of RSI while in-season. Since 1972 and the implementation of Title IX legislation, competitive rowing has gained popularity in the United States. 1 Currently, the

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Resistance Training Affects Neuromuscular Fatigue But Not Efficiency in Elite Rowers

Timo B. van den Bogaard, Jabik-Jan Bastiaans, and Mathijs J. Hofmijster

Rowing performance is strongly related to strength and muscle mass. 1 , 2 To improve muscle strength and maximal power output, resistance training (RT) is adopted by many competitive rowers. RT has been shown to lead to improved neuromuscular capacity, hypertrophy, vascular proliferation, and