Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18–25), 10 overweight (BMI 25–30 kg·m−2), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m−2) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.
Karen Roemer, Tibor Hortobagyi, Chris Richter, Yolanda Munoz-Maldonado, and Stephanie Hamilton
Ruth M. Hobson, Roger C. Harris, Dan Martin, Perry Smith, Ben Macklin, Bruno Gualano, and Craig Sale
To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance.
Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g·d−1 for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences.
Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations.
Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.
Kaelin C. Young, Kristina L. Kendall, Kaitlyn M. Patterson, Priyanka D. Pandya, Ciaran M. Fairman, and Samuel W. Smith
To assess changes in body composition, lumbar-spine bone mineral density (BMD), and rowing performance in collegelevel rowers over a competition season.
Eleven Division I college rowers (mean ± SD 21.4 ± 3.7 y) completed 6 testing sessions throughout the course of their competition season. Testing included measurements of fat mass, bone-free lean mass (BFLM), body fat (%BF), lumbar-spine BMD, and 2000-m time-trial performance. After preseason testing, rowers participated in a periodized training program, with the addition of resistance training to the traditional aerobic-training program.
Significant (P < .05) improvements in %BF, total mass, and BFLM were observed at midseason and postseason compared with preseason. Neither lumbar-spine BMD nor BMC significantly changed over the competitive season (P > .05). Finally, rowing performance (as measured by 2000-m time and average watts achieved) significantly improved at midseason and postseason compared with preseason.
Our results highlight the efficacy of a seasonal concurrent training program serving to improve body composition and rowing performance, as measured by 2000-m times and average watts, among college-level rowers. Our findings offer practical applications for coaches and athletes looking to design a concurrent strength and aerobic training program to improve rowing performance across a season.
Lotte L. Lintmeijer, A.J. “Knoek” van Soest, Freek S. Robbers, Mathijs J. Hofmijster, and Peter J. Beek
comply with the prescribed training loads. In rowing, achieving compliance with prescribed intensity is not trivial because feedback on the rate of metabolic energy consumption cannot be routinely provided to the rowers. Therefore, in current practice, derivatives of the rate of metabolic energy
Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann, and Tanja Legenbauer
Rowing – A Sport With a Higher Risk for Eating Disturbances Despite the fact that lightweight rowing represents a weight-sensitive discipline, little is known about the occurrence of eating disturbances in competitive rowers ( Sykora, Grilo, Wilfley, & Brownell, 1993 ). In rowing, individuals are
Steffen Held, Anne Hecksteden, Tim Meyer, and Lars Donath
Rowing requires high endurance 1 and strength capacities at the same time. 2 , 3 Accordingly, in addition to extensive endurance training, 1 resistance training 2 is also considered in competitive rowing. As strength and endurance training may interfere with each other, 4 resistance training
Timo B. van den Bogaard, Jabik-Jan Bastiaans, and Mathijs J. Hofmijster
Rowing performance is strongly related to strength and muscle mass. 1 , 2 To improve muscle strength and maximal power output, resistance training (RT) is adopted by many competitive rowers. RT has been shown to lead to improved neuromuscular capacity, hypertrophy, vascular proliferation, and
Sara R. Sherman, Clifton J. Holmes, Bjoern Hornikel, Hayley V. MacDonald, Michael V. Fedewa, and Michael R. Esco
, during intense training periods, vagal indices of HRV decrease acutely and rebound 24 to 48 hours beyond their pretraining recovery levels, resulting in different performance outcomes for both recreational and highly trained athletes. 4 – 7 Endurance-type sports, such as rowing, place excessive demands
Kurt Jensen, Morten Frydkjær, Niels M.B. Jensen, Lucas M. Bannerholt, and Søren Gam
Although many physiological and anthropometric parameters alone or in combination can be used to predict rowing performance in Olympic rowing (2000 m), the most important physiological determinant of rowing performance is maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max , in L·min −1 ). 1 – 6 Regular
Gavin Cowper, Martin Barwood, and Stuart Goodall
Rowing is a physiologically demanding sport, due to the recruitment of a large muscle mass and work rates near rowers’ maximal physical capacity. 1 , 2 Rowers possess large body dimensions and produce among the largest values of any athlete in the specific parameters of physical fitness, involving