This study evaluated the effect of game venue and starting status on precompetitive psychophysiological measures in elite rugby union. Saliva samples were taken from players (starting XV, n = 15, and nonstarters, n = 9) on a control day and 90 min before 4 games played consecutively at home and away venues against local rivals and league leaders. Precompetition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory−2. The squad recorded 2 wins (home) and 2 losses (away) over the study period. Calculated effect sizes (ESs) showed higher pregame cortisol- (C) and testosterone- (T) difference values before all games than on a baseline control day (ES 0.7−1.5). Similar findings were observed for cognitive and somatic anxiety. Small between-venues C differences were observed in starting XV players (ES 0.2−0.25). Conversely, lower home T- (ES 0.95) and higher away C- (ES 0.6) difference values were observed in nonstarters. Lower T-difference values were apparent in nonstarters (vs starting XV) before home games, providing evidence of a between-groups effect (ES 0.92). Findings show an anticipatory rise in psychophysiological variables before competition. Knowledge of starting status appears a moderating factor in the magnitude of player endocrine response between home and away games.
Brian Cunniffe, Kevin A. Morgan, Julien S. Baker, Marco Cardinale and Bruce Davies
Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Dale B. Read, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Ben Jones, Cloe Cummins and John A. Sampson
Small-sided games (SSGs) are commonly used as a tool for training team-sport athletes. 1 Amateur and professional athletes 2 across a wide range of football codes (eg, soccer, 3 rugby union, 4 and rugby league 5 ) use SSGs, as they can develop multiple facets (eg, physical, technical, and
Marcos de Noronha, Eleisha K. Lay, Madelyn R. Mcphee, George Mnatzaganian and Guilherme S. Nunes
of exposure Total Ankle sprains occurrence by match time Fuller et al 22 Rugby 941 19.0 (0.6) 4 tournaments 166 team matches 25 First quarter: 1 Second quarter: 8 Third quarter: 11 Fourth quarter: 5 Sankey et al 23 Rugby 546 NR 2 seasons 210 matches 70 First quarter: 10 Second quarter: 22 Third
François Rodrigue, Pierre Trudel and Jennifer Boyd
facilitation and report outcomes are lacking ( Picknell, Cropley, Hanton, & Mellalieu, 2014 ). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to extend the work of Milistetd et al. ( 2018 ) by documenting and assessing the value of a 12-month NCC involving a female HP rugby coach and a PLC. Specifically, the
Paul A. Sellars, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Camilla J. Knight
that of adolescence ( Stambulova, 2012 ). Reflecting these concerns, rugby union in Wales has experienced reduced levels of participation in adolescent age groups (cf. Welsh Rugby Union, 2014 ). The importance of rugby to Wales as a nation is ever present, and therefore continued participation and
Mitchell J. Henderson, Job Fransen, Jed J. McGrath, Simon K. Harries, Nick Poulos and Aaron J. Coutts
Rugby sevens performance is multifactorial and involves physical, technical, and tactical components. With the increased availability of athlete-tracking microtechnologies and load-monitoring tools such as global positioning systems and microelectrical mechanical systems, 1 professional field
Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite
conflict, uncertainty, and change when sports are commercialized. For example, in their study of the professionalization of English rugby, O’Brien and Slack (2004) found that financially troubled, uncertain clubs replaced their amateur values with ideas copied from other organizations. Then, as clubs
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker
Worldwide 120 countries are affiliated to the rugby union, and rugby is thought to be played by ∼7 million people ( Rugby World, 2017 ). The two major club competitions are “Super Rugby” played in the Southern Hemisphere, with teams from Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Japan, and Argentina
Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman
As of the XXXI Games in Rio de Janeiro, sevens is the Olympic code in the sport of rugby. As a new Olympic sport it is expected that global participation will surge beyond the 2015 mark of just under 3 million registered athletes to 10 million by the 2020 Tokyo Games. 1 With skill standards rising
Mark Russell, Aden King, Richard. M. Bracken, Christian. J. Cook, Thibault Giroud and Liam. P. Kilduff
To assess the effects of different modes of morning (AM) exercise on afternoon (PM) performance and salivary hormone responses in professional rugby union players.
On 4 occasions (randomized, crossover design), 15 professional rugby players provided AM (~8 AM) and PM (~2 PM) saliva samples before PM assessments of countermovement-jump height, reaction time, and repeated-sprint ability. Control (passive rest), weights (bench press: 5 × 10 repetitions, 75% 1-repetition maximum, 90-s intraset recovery), cycling (6 × 6-s maximal sprint cycling, 7.5% body mass load, 54-s intraset recovery), and running (6 × 40-m maximal sprints, 20-s intraset recovery) interventions preceded (~5 h) PM testing.
PM sprint performance improved (P < .05) after weights (>0.15 ± 0.19 s, >2.04% ± 2.46%) and running (>0.15 ± 0.17 s, >2.12% ± 2.22%) but not cycling (P > .05). PM jump height increased after cycling (0.012 ± 0.009 m, 2.31% ± 1.76%, P < .001) and running (0.020 ± 0.009 m, 3.90% ± 1.79%, P < .001) but not weights (P = .936). Reaction time remained unchanged between trials (P = .379). Relative to control (131 ± 21 pg/mL), PM testosterone was greater in weights (21 ± 23 pg/mL, 17% ± 18%, P = .002) and running (28 ± 26 pg/mL, 22% ± 20%, P = .001) but not cycling (P = .072). Salivary cortisol was unaffected by AM exercise (P = .540).
All modes of AM exercise improved at least 1 marker of PM performance, but running appeared the most beneficial to professional rugby union players. A rationale therefore exists for preceding PM competition with AM exercise.