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Mariana Kaiseler, Jamie M. Poolton, Susan H. Backhouse and Nick Stanger

The role of dispositional mindfulness on stress in student-athletes and factors that mediate this relationship has yet to be examined. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the facets of mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes and whether these relationships are mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Participants were 202 student-athletes who completed validated measures of dispositional mindfulness, student-athlete life stress, decision rumination and coping effectiveness in sport. Results indicated that the acting with awareness and nonjudging facets of mindfulness were negative predictors of life stress, whereas the observe facet was a positive predictor of life stress. Mediation analyses revealed that these relationships were mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Findings provide new insight into the role dispositional mindfulness plays on student-athlete perceptions of life stress and implications for practitioners are discussed.

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Brittany N. Semenchuk, Shaelyn M. Strachan and Michelle Fortier

( Neff, 2003a ). Mindfulness involves a balanced awareness of one’s thoughts and emotions, without rumination or overidentification ( Neff, 2003b ). Self-kindness involves meeting thoughts and emotions with care rather than harsh criticism ( Neff, 2003b ). Common humanity is the recognition of the

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Amber D. Mosewich, Peter R.E. Crocker, Kent C. Kowalski and Anita DeLongis

This study investigated the effects of a self-compassion intervention on negative cognitive states and selfcompassion in varsity women athletes. Athletes who self-identified as being self-critical were randomly assigned to a self-compassion intervention (n = 29) or attention control group (n = 22). The self-compassion intervention consisted of a psychoeducation session and writing components completed over a 7-day period. Measures of self-compassion, state self-criticism, state rumination, and concern over mistakes were collected pretreatment, at 1 week posttreatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. A mixed factorial MANOVA with follow-up post hoc tests demonstrated moderate-to-strong effects for the intervention at posttest and follow-up (Wilks’s Λ = .566, F (8, 42) = 4.03, p < .01, η2 = .43). The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the self-compassion intervention in managing self-criticism, rumination, and concern over mistakes. Fostering a self-compassionate frame of mind is a potential coping resource for women athletes dealing with negative events in sport.

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Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler and Serge Brand

/or experiencing increased daytime sleepiness) and rumination (a person’s proneness to worry about and feel preoccupied with unresolved problems). These two factors are considered to impact on the development and persistence of sleep problems ( Hoffmann et al., 1996 ). We assessed five items per subscale, with

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Craig Lodis, Sandra T. Sigmon, Amber Martinson, Julia Craner, Morgan McGillicuddy and Bruce Hale

This study investigated seasonality in male and female college athletes and nonathletes. Given the literature on activity level and its positive impact on mood, it was predicted that athletes would benefit more than nonathletes with regards to seasonal symptoms. Participants completed measures of seasonality, depression, and cognitive processes during a winter month. Multiple measures of seasonality were administered to distinguish seasonal depression symptoms from nonseasonal symptoms. Results indicated that nonathletes reported more seasonal symptoms, seasonal attitudes, and rumination, gained more weight, socialized the least, and slept more than athletes. Female nonathletes reported the most impact from the changing seasons and more negative thoughts about the changing seasons. These results indicate that engaging in collegiate athletics may serve as a protective factor in seasonal depression.

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

rumination have been identified as crucial causal pathways towards anxiety and depression (see Watkins, 2008 ). More recently, adopting an abstract ruminative processing style focused on the causes, meanings and implications of events (vs. a concrete processing style focused on how the event unfolded or

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Jeffrey J. Martin

In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22–.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40–.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive thoughts. Athletes with strong resiliency and thought control efficacy also reported more PA and less NA. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the four efficacies predicted 10 and 22% of the variance in PA and NA, respectively.

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Leah J. Ferguson, Kent C. Kowalski, Diane E. Mack and Catherine M. Sabiston

Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one’s potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being.

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Nadav Goldschmied, Max Nankin and Guy Cafri

Icing is a common strategy used in American football during the last moments of a close game when a coach may ask for a time-out to allow an opposing kicker, who is about to attempt a decisive field-kick, an extended period of time possibly to contemplate the negative outcomes if he fails to score (i.e., rumination). Using archival data of pressure kicks from six consecutive National Football League seasons (2002—2008), a mixed-effects hierarchical linear model was applied. It was found that icing was successful in reducing scoring while other environmental factors such as experience, game location or game score were not associated with conversion success. In a secondary analysis it was demonstrated that if a time-out before the pressure kick is requested by the coaches of the kicking team, kickers are not subjected to the debilitating effects of icing. Theoretical and applied implications are also discussed.

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Aaron Sciascia, Jacob Waldecker and Cale Jacobs

Background: Pain is the most common patient-reported symptom but the perception of pain is complex, differs between individuals and is not directly proportional to the extent of injury. The relationship between aberrant pain coping strategies such as pain catastrophizing and the presence of pain in competitive athletes should be further established to employ the most optimal treatment. Hypothesis: The hypotheses were that numeric pain rating and pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS) scores would have a moderate to strong relationship in college athletes, and athletes with either a current injury or previous injury, or playing with pain, would have significantly higher pain catastrophizing scores compared with noninjured/nonpainful athletes. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: III. Methods: College athletes completed a demographic form, injury questionnaire, numeric pain rating, and the PCS. All athletes were medically cleared for sports participation at the time of survey completion. A total PCS score was calculated in addition to a rumination, magnification, and helplessness score. Spearman rank was utilized to measure the strength of relationship between the PCS score and pain rating. Results: A total of 291 athletes from 15 different sports completed the questionnaires (males: 156, females: 135; age: 19 [2] y). Negligible correlations existed between the PCS score and pain (r = .27). Athletes who were currently injured or previously injured had significantly higher PCS scores compared with uninjured athletes (P < .01). Conclusions: Approximately one-third of college athletes reported playing injured and/or with pain, but the relationship between pain rating and PCS score was negligible. The individualistic nature of pain perception and coping strategies would suggest that clinicians may want to consider screening for pain catastrophizing either prior to athletic participation or for athletes not following an expected recovery after injury in an effort to enhance individualized patient care.