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Jason Reese

on hosting obstacle racing events. Nonetheless, Clayton, an environmental scientist, and Richard, a computer programmer, knew the potential for obstacle racing events and wholeheartedly planned the event. Pricing of the Red Dirt Mud Run In 2013, Clayton and Richard led the first Red Dirt Mud Run

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Ian Rollo, Lewis James, Louise Croft and Clyde Williams

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) beverage ad libitum or as a prescribed volume on 10-mile run performance and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Nine male recreational runners completed the 10-mile run under the following 3 conditions: no drinking (ND; 0 ml, 0 g CHO), ad libitum drinking (AD; 315 ± 123 ml, 19 ± 7 g CHO), and prescribed drinking (PD; 1,055 ± 90 ml, 64 ± 5 g CHO). During the AD and PD trials, drinks were provided on completion of Miles 2, 4, 6, and 8. Running performance, speed (km/hr), and 10-mile run time were assessed using a global positioning satellite system. The runners’ ratings of perceived exertion and GI comfort were recorded on completion of each lap of the 10-mile run. There was a significant difference (p < .10) in performance times for the 10-mile race for the ND, AD, and PD trials, which were 72:05 ± 3:36, 71:14 ± 3:35, and 72:12 ± 3.53 min:s, respectively (p = .094). Ratings of GI comfort were reduced during the PD trial in comparison with both AD and ND trials. In conclusion, runners unaccustomed to habitually drinking CHO-E beverages during training improved their 10-mile race performance with AD drinking a CHO-E beverage, in comparison with drinking a prescribed volume of the same beverage or no drinking.

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Stephen Heung-Sang Wong and Yajun Chen

Purpose:

This study examined the rehydration achieved by drinking different beverages during a short-term recovery period (REC) after exercise-induced dehydration.

Methods:

Thirteen well-trained men (age 22.1 ± 3.3 yr, body mass 61.2 ± 9.1 kg, VO2max 64.9 ± 4.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1, maximum heart rate 198 ± 7 beats/min) ran for 60 min on 3 occasions on a level treadmill at 70% VO2max. All trials were performed in thermoneutral conditions (21 °C, 71% relative humidity) and were separated by at least 7 d. During 4 hr REC, the subjects consumed either a volume of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CE), lemon tea (LT), or distilled water (DW) equal to 150% of the body weight (BW) lost during the previous run. The fluid was consumed in 6 equal volumes at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min of REC.

Results:

After the completion of the 60-min run, the subjects lost ~2.0% of their preexercise BW in all trials, and no differences were observed in these BW changes between trials. At the end of REC, the greatest fraction of the retained drink occurred when the CE drink was consumed (CE vs. LT vs. DW: 52% ± 18% vs. 36% ± 15% vs. 30% ± 14%, p < .05). The CE drink also caused the least diuretic effect (CE vs. LT vs. DW: 638 ± 259 vs. 921 ± 323 vs. 915 ± 210 ml, p < .05) and produced the optimal restoration of plasma volume (CE vs. LT vs. DW: 11.2% ± 2.0% vs. –3.1% ± 1.8% vs. 0.2% ± 2.1%, p < .05).

Conclusion:

The results of this study suggest that CE drinks are more effective than DW or LT in restoring fluid balance during short-term REC after exercise-induced dehydration.

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Frances Early and Paula Corcoran

Background:

Regular, moderate physical activity reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity; however increasing the physical activity levels of less active people is a public health challenge. This study explores the potential of mass participation physical activity events to engage less active people, through analyzing the accounts of participants in 2 events who identified themselves as low-active before entering.

Methods:

Seven participants in a sponsored run and 7 in a sponsored walk were interviewed and transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory techniques.

Results:

Participants had positive experiences encapsulated in 3 categories: Performing (physical completion of the event culminating in a sense of achievement); Relating (enjoying relationships); Soaking up the Atmosphere (enjoying the event ambience). The way in which these categories were manifested was affected by the event context.

Conclusions:

Mass participation events have potential to engage low-active people. The impact of participation resonated with factors that are positively associated with physical activity in other settings, and event characteristics matched key criteria for attracting low-active groups identified through social marketing research. Suggestions are given for how to capitalize on the findings for health promotion.

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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

moment 15 in, retrospectively, currently or prospectively injured runners. To date, most studies have assessed injury-related biomechanical variables while runners complete short runs. Since dynamic postural control is reduced following an exhaustive run 16 , 17 and long trail running with a consistent

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Johan Cassirame, Hervé Sanchez and Jean-Benoit Morin

nature of the running surface (eg, its stiffness) on which athletes propel themselves during the run-up phase. Due to this change in supporting track mechanics, the validity of jumping performance achieved in such conditions has been debated, due to the possible beneficial effect of the elevated track on

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Paula R. Mesquita, Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Eliane F. Manfio and Ana C. de David

; in addition, the highest values of maximum force tend to move from the rearfoot to the forefoot when adults run. 18 Thus, our results are an indication that differences in plantar loads patterns during running and walking in children are similar to those observed in adults. 18 Increased contact

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Daisuke Kume, Akira Iguchi and Hiroshi Endoh

oxygenation profiles measured with NIRS provide valuable information for the understanding of physiological response in active muscles during exercise and their relationship with physical performance. The 20-m shuttle run test (20mSRT) is the most common field test for assessing aerobic fitness in many

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Sam S.X. Wu, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Peter Peeling, Jeanick Brisswalter, Wing Y. Lau, Kazunori Nosaka and Chris R. Abbiss

Purpose:

To investigate the effect of 3 swim-pacing profiles on subsequent performance during a sprint-distance triathlon (SDT).

Methods:

Nine competitive/trained male triathletes completed 5 experimental sessions including a graded running exhaustion test, a 750-m swim time trial (STT), and 3 SDTs. The swim times of the 3 SDTs were matched, but pacing was manipulated to induce positive (ie, speed gradually decreasing from 92% to 73% STT), negative (ie, speed gradually increasing from 73% to 92% STT), or even pacing (constant 82.5% STT). The remaining disciplines were completed at a self-selected maximal pace. Speed over the entire triathlon, power output during the cycle discipline, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for each discipline, and heart rate during the cycle and run were determined.

Results:

Faster cycle and overall triathlon times were achieved with positive swim pacing (30.5 ± 1.8 and 65.9 ± 4.0 min, respectively), as compared with the even (31.4 ± 1.0 min, P = .018 and 67.7 ± 3.9 min, P = .034, effect size [ES] = 0.46, respectively) and negative (31.8 ± 1.6 min, P = .011 and 67.3 ± 3.7 min, P = .041, ES = 0.36, respectively) pacing. Positive swim pacing elicited a lower RPE (9 ± 2) than negative swim pacing (11 ± 2, P = .014). No differences were observed in the other measured variables.

Conclusions:

A positive swim pacing may improve overall SDT performance and should be considered by both elite and age-group athletes during racing.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

This manuscript introduces our comprehensive project evaluating the effectiveness of Girls on the Run , a physical activity-based youth development program. Considerable evidence reveals the many health benefits of regular physical activity for children and youth, including cardiorespiratory