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Bettina Karsten, Liesbeth Stevens, Mark Colpus, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala and Fernando Naclerio


To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT).


16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy).


Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-trainingonly group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests.


No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training.


Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.

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Denise A. Baden, Lawrence Warwick-Evans and Julie Lakomy

Two studies tested the hypothesis that teleoanticipatory mechanisms regulate the perception of exertion (RPE) in the context of expected exercise duration by the adjustment of attentional focus. Study 1 involved 22 runners who participated in a short (8-mile) run and a long (10-mile) run on separate days. Pace did not differ between conditions (M = 6.3 mph). Runners reported on their attentional focus (proportion of associative to dissociative thoughts) and RPE at regular intervals. Study 2 involved 40 participants who ran twice on a treadmill at the same speed and gradient: once when they expected to run for 10 min (short condition) and once when they expected to run for 20 min (long condition). In both studies, RPE was lower throughout the long condition. In Study 1 there were more dissociative thoughts in the long condition. Study 2 showed the same trend, although the results were nonsignificant. In both studies RPE was inversely correlated with dissociative thoughts, supporting the hypothesis that runners pace themselves cognitively by manipulating their

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Marco Cardinale, Rodney Whiteley, Ahmed Abdelrahman Hosny and Nebojsa Popovic


Handball is an Olympic sport played indoors by 6 court players and 1 goalkeeper with rolling substitutions. Limited data exist on elite players competing in a world championship, and virtually no information exists on the evolution of time–motion performance over the course of a long tournament.


To analyze time–motion characteristics of elite male handball players of the last world championships, played in Qatar in 2015.


384 handball players from 24 national teams.


The athletes were analyzed during 88 matches using a tracking camera system and bespoke software (Prozone Handball v. 1.2, Prozone, Leeds, UK).


The average time on court (N = 2505) during the world championships for all players was 36:48 ± 20:27 min. Goalkeepers and left and right wings were on court most of the playing time (GK 43.00 ± 25:59 min; LW 42:02 ± 21:07 min; RW 43:44 ± 21:37 min). The total distance covered during each game (2607.5 ± 1438.4 m) consisted mostly of walking and jogging. The cumulative distance covered during the tournament was 16,313 ± 9423.3 m. Players performed 857.2 ± 445.7 activity changes with a recovery time of 124.3 ± 143 s. The average running pace was 78.2 ± 10.8 m/min. There was no significant difference between high-ranked and lower-ranked teams in terms of distance covered in different locomotion categories.


Specific physical conditioning is necessary to maximize performance of handball players and minimize the occurrence of fatigue when performing in long tournaments.

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Nicholas Watanabe, Pamela Wicker and Grace Yan

The awarding of the hosting of the Football World Cup to Russia and Qatar initiated discussions about temperature and travel distances related to the game. This study examines the effect of weather conditions, travel distances, and rest days—three factors potentially causing fatigue—on running performance using player-level and teamlevel data from the 2014 World Cup. The results show that the heat index (combining temperature and humidity) significantly decreased running performance (number of sprints, high-intensity running), while a clear sky was positively associated with distance covered at high intensity. Travel distance and rest were insignificant. When these models are used to predict running performance at the 2022 Qatar World Cup, the projections show that the combination of heat and wind could hinder the performance of both players and teams and create potentially dangerous conditions. The present study has implications for policy makers regarding the choice of future host countries.

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Håvard Wiig, Thor Einar Andersen, Live S. Luteberget and Matt Spencer

-speed running distance (HSRD), accelerometer-based load, accelerations, and decelerations, and where any single external load variable only covers parts of the overall external load. Thus, how these external load variables affect the internal load in football is not fully understood. In a meta

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Samuel Ryan, Aaron J. Coutts, Joel Hocking, Patrick A. Dillon, Anthony Whitty and Thomas Kempton

spent within training drills. Both acute (7-d) and chronic (3-wk) running distance for each player were collected throughout the season. These periods were chosen based on their utility in explaining injury likelihood and are reflective of competition and training scheduling in these athletes. 12 Acute

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Heita Goto and James A. King

of 75, 98, and 135 m 2 , respectively ( 14 ). The results showed increases in high-intensity running distance with increases in number of players and area per player in both approaches. Moreover, the high-intensity running distance of SSGs was underestimated by the speed approach compared with the

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Brian J. McMorrow, Massimiliano Ditroilo and Brendan Egan

-season in professional soccer players, on sprint and COD performance and to compare the effects of this RSS intervention to URS training covering the same running distances. Methods Subjects Eighteen male subjects (age = 24.7 [3.4] y; height = 1.80 [0.06] m; BM = 80.6 [8.8] kg) consented to participate and

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Steve Barrett

’ external loads. 2 – 4 Locomotor activities such as total distance covered (TDC), high-speed running distance covered (HSR), or sprinting distance covered (SP 4 ) are common external load metrics used by practitioners. More recently, accelerometers have been utilized to monitor the external load of soccer

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Ryland Morgans, Rocco Di Michele and Barry Drust

-intensity running distance. The within-player standard deviations, calculated from the residual variance of linear mixed models with random intercepts on individual players, were 2.442 and 0.291 km for TD and HI, respectively. Linear mixed models revealed a possible trivial effect of TD on both CMJ height and PP