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Deryn Bath, Louise A. Turner, Andrew N. Bosch, Ross Tucker, Estelle V. Lambert, Kevin G. Thompson and Alan St. Clair Gibson


The aim of this study was to examine performance, pacing strategy and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial while running with or without the presence of another athlete.


Eleven nonelite male athletes participated in five 5 km time trials: two self-paced, maximal effort trials performed at the start and end of the study, and three trials performed in the presence of a second runner. In the three trials, the second runner ran either in front of the subject, behind the subject, or next to the subject. Performance times, heart rate, RPE, and a subjective assessment of the effect of the second runner on the athlete’s performance were recorded during each of the trials.


There was no significant difference in performance times, heart rate or RPE between any of the five trials. Running speed declined from the 1st to the 4th kilometer and then increased for the last kilometer in all five trials. Following the completion of all trials, 9 of the 11 subjects perceived it to be easier to complete the 5 km time trial with another runner in comparison with running alone.


While the athletes perceived their performance to be improved by the presence of another runner, their pacing strategy, running speed, heart rate and RPE were not significantly altered. These findings indicate that an athlete’s subconscious pacing strategy is robust and is not altered by the presence of another runner.

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Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley and Thomas Cattagni

Age-related changes in performance affect all sport disciplines from sprinting to endurance events. 1 , 2 For swimming and running, previous research has shown that performance decrements with age are greater for endurance events than for sprinting events. 3 – 5 However, the reasons that exercise

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

a time frame) 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Number of sessions per week 1 (2.8) 3 (2.6) Critical velocity 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Coefficient of variation of running velocity during the marathon 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Difference in VO 2 between baseline and lactate increase 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ectomorphy 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Energy

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

Distance-running performance is dependent on the speed that can be sustained for the duration of an event. This speed is determined by the interaction of several physiological factors 1 that include maximal rate of oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), anaerobic capacity, fractional utilization of V ˙ O

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

Running economy, defined as the oxygen or energy cost of transport, has been found to be an important and reliable predictor of running performance. 1 The value of running economy as a performance predictor arises because both metabolic and biomechanical aspects contribute to it, and by extension

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Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

endurance events, with incidence rates of ≥60% consistently observed in individuals partaking in ultraendurance competitions. This far exceeds incidence rates in shorter endurance running events, such as half-marathon, marathon, and exertional stress <2 hr, with minimal symptoms reported ( Costa et

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

Ultramarathon running events and participation numbers have increased progressively over the past three decades ( Deutsche Ultramarathon Vereinigung, 2018 ). Anecdotally, there has been growing interest from both amateur and elite endurance runners looking for new adventurous courses and challenges

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Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei and Thomas Wyss

and 27 women) participated in this study, age = 31.3 (9.5) years, height = 1.8 (0.1) m, and weight = 68.3 (10.8) kg. All the athletes were recreational or competitive runners or triathletes with 6.8 (4.8) years of running experience at their current level. The athletes performed on average 4.3 (2

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Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau and Alexander J. Koch

.73) Afternoon 10.51 (6.42) 13.62 (4.02) 18.24 (7.34) *Significantly greater than at 8:00 PM. **Significantly greater than at 10:00 PM. Exercise sessions comprised a 5-minute warm-up followed by 30 minutes of running on a level treadmill at 75% of the subjects’ VO 2 max. After the completion of all exercise

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

; CareFusion, San Diego, CA) was estimated by a continuous incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill (Forma Run 500; Technogym, Seattle, WA) ( Costa et al., 2009 ). To determine running speed for the experimental trials, the treadmill speed was extrapolated from the V ˙ O 2