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Thibault Lussiana, Cyrille Gindre, Kim Hébert-Losier, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Philippe Gimenez, and Laurent Mourot

Purpose:

No unique or ideal running pattern is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into 2 categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare the RE of aerial and terrestrial runners.

Methods:

Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n = 29) or terrestrial (n = 29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations. RE, muscle activity, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters of both groups were measured during a 5-min run at 12 km/h on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and peak treadmill speed (PTS) were assessed during an incremental running test.

Results:

No differences were observed between aerial and terrestrial patterns for RE, V̇O2max, and PTS. However, at 12 km/h, aerial runners exhibited earlier gastrocnemius lateralis activation in preparation for contact, less dorsiflexion at ground contact, higher coactivation indexes, and greater leg stiffness during stance phase than terrestrial runners. Terrestrial runners had more pronounced semitendinosus activation at the start and end of the running cycle, shorter flight time, greater leg compression, and a more rear-foot strike.

Conclusions:

Different running patterns were associated with similar RE. Aerial runners appear to rely more on elastic energy utilization with a rapid eccentric-concentric coupling time, whereas terrestrial runners appear to propel the body more forward rather than upward to limit work against gravity. Excluding runners with a mixed running pattern from analyses did not affect study interpretation.

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William L. Siler and Philip E. Martin

In order to compare fast and slow runners with respect to the relative timing of the compensations they make to maintain a given running velocity during a prolonged effort, coordinate data were collected periodically for 9 fast and 10 slow volunteers performing a treadmill run to volitional exhaustion at a speed approximating their 10-km race pace. Statistically significant but small changes were noted in the average stride length, range of motion at the thigh, maximum thigh flexion, maximum knee extension, maximum knee flexion, and head-neck-trunk segment (HNT) angle at maximum thigh extension. No statistically significant differences were detected, however, with regard to the relative timing of the compensations demonstrated by the two groups. It was concluded that runners demonstrate subtle compensations in running pattern as they approach volitional exhaustion. In addition, it was concluded that the performance level of the runners as reflected by the ranges of 10-km run performance used in this investigation does not affect the relative timing of the compensations. Finally, it appears that some individuals are more sensitive to the effects of fatigue as evidenced by extreme compensations in running pattern.

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Beatrice Gorton and Susan J. Gavron

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected kinematic variables of two classes of blind runners, B-1 and B-3, in the 100-m dash. A total of 26 males served as subjects and were filmed in actual competition at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. Filming was conducted at 150 frames per second with the camera positioned perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinematic data extracted from the film included center of gravity, displacements, velocities, and selected joint angles. It was believed that the results of this study would be useful for (a) establishing some descriptive data of blind athletes in B-1 and B-3 classes, (b) understanding individual differences among blind runners of two different classifications, and (c) providing empirical data of the running patterns from which implications for the development of teaching/coaching methods might be gained.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis, and Keith Davids

acceleration signal within the lower and higher frequency ranges; TF low and TF high  = shock attenuation magnitude in the lower and higher frequency ranges; TTF low and TTF high  = shock attenuation frequency in the lower and higher. This equivalent result of a forefoot running pattern is unsurprising given

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Trampas M. TenBroek, Pedro A. Rodrigues, Edward C. Frederick, and Joseph Hamill

The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate how kinematic patterns are adjusted while running in footwear with THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsole thicknesses and (2) determine if these patterns are adjusted over time during a sustained run in footwear of different thicknesses. Ten male heel-toe runners performed treadmill runs in specially constructed footwear (THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsoles) on separate days. Standard lower extremity kinematics and acceleration at the tibia and head were captured. Time epochs were created using data from every 5 minutes of the run. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used (P < .05) to determine differences across footwear and time. At touchdown, kinematics were similar for the THIN and MEDIUM conditions distal to the knee, whereas only the THIN condition was isolated above the knee. No runners displayed midfoot or forefoot strike patterns in any condition. Peak accelerations were slightly increased with THIN and MEDIUM footwear as was eversion, as well as tibial and thigh internal rotation. It appears that participants may have been anticipating, very early in their run, a suitable kinematic pattern based on both the length of the run and the footwear condition.

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Denise Jennings, Stuart Cormack, Aaron J. Coutts, Luke Boyd, and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports.

Methods:

Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]).

Results:

Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz).

Conclusion:

Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga, and Reed Ferber

patterns 23 – 26 and appear to adjust their running patterns differently in response to fatigue. 10 Specifically, more recreational or novice runners demonstrate greater kinematic alterations at the end of a fatigue-inducing run, whereas competitive runners can maintain more consistent biomechanical

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Christian A. Clermont, Andrew J. Pohl, and Reed Ferber

. Studies investigating the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on running patterns using wearable sensors have found decreased step/stride regularity, increased peak accelerations, greater root mean square (RMS) values, and higher anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) measures of RMS ratio in CoM

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Christian A. Clermont, Sean T. Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, and Reed Ferber

Research has shown that certain homogeneous subgroups demonstrate distinct kinematic patterns in running. For example, running patterns have been reported in subgroups related to sex, 1 – 3 running mileage, 4 foot strike patterns, 5 – 9 and running economy. 10 – 12 Running economy is often

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Kristin D. Morgan

–unstable transition, whereas the control individuals were dispersed around the triangle. This suggests that the ACLR individuals all adopted a similar running pattern, potentially due to muscle weakness that caused them to become less dynamically stable and possibly placing them at greater risk for injury. The