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Melissa Moore, Jeni Warburton, Paul D. O’Halloran, Nora Shields and Kingsley

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the characteristics and effectiveness of community-based interventions designed to increase physical activity participation in older adults (aged 65 years or more) living in rural or regional areas. Relevant peer-reviewed literature was obtained, using four primary electronic search engines, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The initial search identified 4,690 articles. After removal of duplicates and excluded articles, seven articles were included in the review. Few consistencies existed between intervention types, duration, outcome measures, and follow-up. Results provide some evidence to support the effectiveness of community-based interventions that include low- to moderate-intensity exercise to increase physical activity, physical function, and psychological state. However, without more rigorous studies it is difficult to identify the most critical characteristics of community-based interventions for older adults in rural and regional settings.

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards and Afroditi Stathi

–.472, p  < .001; Davis, Fox, Hillsdon, Coulson, et al., 2011 ). From activity diaries, it was seen that these trips often involved social contact ( Davis, Fox, Hillsdon, Coulson, et al., 2011 ). Measuring only self-reported intentional PA or exercise may miss such forms of activity. The Rural Context

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Michelle C. Kegler, Iris Alcantara, Regine Haardörfer, Alexandra Gemma, Denise Ballard and Julie Gazmararian


Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities.


Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes.


The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors’ homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods.


Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

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Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan and Christopher Wichman

, and depression. 16 – 18 Because physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases, it is important to address inactivity in all adults, particularly those living in rural areas. Rural communities have higher rates of preventable conditions and chronic diseases, such as obesity and

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

Providing opportunities for rural-residing older adults (OA) to be physically active is important for their health and well-being. OA (65 years and older) now comprise 13.3% of the overall United States population ( Administration on Aging and the Department of Health and Human Services, 2012

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Luciana Zuest

lives, particularly in rural areas of the United States. A recent systematic literature review examining qualitative studies on adolescent girls’ PA perspectives identified 24 studies meeting their inclusion criteria ( Corr et al., 2019 ). However, most of those studies ( n  = 20) were conducted in

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

things. He just graduated with a Master’s Degree in Sport Management and was hired by the Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB) as a Sport Event Coordinator. His first task was to write a report regarding a new sport event that could potentially be hosted by the rural community of Panorama. He knew that

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

The impact on personal health of living in a rural county in the United States has received great attention of late. A person’s place of residence can mean less than optimal access to healthy foods and safe venues for physical activity. Combining lack of access to conditions that support health

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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

disease ( Kolotkin, Meter, & Williams, 2001 ). Rural women have a disproportionate rate of obesity-related behaviors, including inactivity and a high prevalence of associated chronic disease, when compared with their urban counterparts, and these behaviors contribute to a higher prevalence of late

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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson and Jill Maples

many misconceptions regarding this topic still exist. 11 Thus, the scientific evidence supporting PA during pregnancy does not appear to be translating into the clinic and the community. Women in rural areas experience poorer obstetric health outcomes and have less access to health care resources