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Guillaume Gaudet, Maxime Raison, Fabien Dal Maso, Sofiane Achiche and Mickael Begon

The aim of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of nonnormalized surface electromyography (sEMG) on the muscles actuating the forearm during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). A subobjective of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of forearm MVIC force or torque, which is a prerequisite to assess sEMG reliability. Eighteen healthy adults participated at 4 different times: baseline, 1-h post, 6-h post, and 24-h post. They performed 3 MVIC trials of forearm flexion, extension, pronation, and supination. sEMG of the biceps brachii short head, brachialis, brachioradialis, triceps brachii long head, pronator teres, and pronator quadratus were measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) on MVIC ranged from 0.36 to 0.99. Reliability was excellent for flexion, extension, and supination MVIC for both intra- and intersession. The ICC on sEMG ranged from 0.58 to 0.99. sEMG reliability was excellent for brachialis, brachioradialis, and pronator quadratus, and good to excellent for triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and pronator teres. This study shows that performing 3 MVICs is sufficient to obtain highly reliable maximal sEMG over 24 h for the main muscles actuating the forearm. These results confirm the potential of sEMG for muscle motor functional monitoring.

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Gretchen Oliver, Lisa Henning and Hillary Plummer

The purpose of this study was to examine activations of selected scapular stabilizing musculature while performing an overhead throw with a hold (not releasing the ball) in two different throwing positions—standing with a crow hop and kneeling on the ipsilateral knee. Surface electromyography was used to examine activations of throwing side lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), serratus anterior (SA), and upper trapezius (UT). Muscle activations were recorded while performing the overhead throw with holds while in two throwing positions. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences between the two throwing conditions and muscle activations of LT, MT, SA, and UT: F(8,124) = .804, p = .600; Wilks’s Λ = .904, partial η2 = .049. Although no significant differences were observed in the scapular stabilizers between the two conditions, moderate (21–50% MVIC) to high (> 50% MVIC) activations of each muscle were present, indicating that nonrelease throws may be beneficial for scapular stabilization in throwers.

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Gabriel Andrade Paz, Lohanne Almeida, Larissa Ruiz, Sabrina Casseres, Giovanna Xavier, João Lucas, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Scott Bonnette and Jeffrey Willardson

electromyography (sEMG), the measurement of the electrical currents produced by activated muscle fibers, 24 and subsequent analyses of the recordings can provide valuable information regarding muscle activity, performance, and the underlying neurological behavior that gives rise to such behaviors. Given the

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

linear encoder is considered a valid and reliable tool for measuring mean mechanical power during strength training activities. 18 The mean value per set for each mechanical parameter was recorded for analysis. Surface electromyography (sEMG) data were collected and analyzed using a portable wireless

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Samuele Contemori and Andrea Biscarini

in the scapular plane. Specifically, the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of middle deltoid (MD), anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), UT, MT, LT, and SA was analyzed to quantify the amplitude of muscular activation, evaluate the muscular activity ratios within and between the ST

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Asger R. Pedersen, Peter W. Stubbs and Jørgen F. Nielsen

The aim was to challenge the assumptions of standard statistical analyses of average surface electromyography (sEMG) data as a measurement of response magnitudes following the generation of a reflex. The ipsilateral tibial nerve was stimulated at three stimulation intensities and the response sEMG was measured in the contralateral soleus (cSOL) muscle. The magnitude of the cSOL response was measured at a set time window following ipsilateral tibial nerve stimulation. The averaged and trial-by-trial response magnitudes were assessed and compared. The analysis of the averaged and trial-by-trial response revealed significantly different results as the trial-by trial response magnitudes were log-normally distributed with between subject variance heterogeneity violating assumptions of standard statistical analyses. A statistical model has been suggested for the analysis of the responses. By ignoring trial-by-trial response variability and distribution, erroneous results may occur. This may change the interpretation of the results in some studies.

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Roald Otten, Johannes L. Tol, Per Holmich and Rodney Whiteley

Study Design:

Cross-sectional.

Context:

Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown.

Objective:

The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg.

Method:

Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8 different strength-testing positions and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Results:

Significant differences between testing positions for all 3 GM subdivisions were found. There were significant differences between the tested and the contralateral anterior and middle GM subdivisions (P < .01). The posterior GM subdivision showed no significant difference (P = .154).

Conclusion:

Side-lying in neutral and side-lying with hip internal rotation are the 2 positions recommended to evaluate GM function and guide specific GM rehabilitation.

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Federico Quinzi, Valentina Camomilla, Alberto Di Mario, Francesco Felici and Paola Sbriccoli

Purpose:

Training in martial arts is commonly performed by repeating a technical action continuously for a given number of times. This study aimed to investigate if the repetition of the task alters the proper technical execution, limiting the training efficacy for the technical evaluation during competition. This aim was pursued analyzing lower-limb kinematics and muscle activation during repeated roundhouse kicks.

Methods:

Six junior karate practitioners performed continuously 20 repetitions of the kick. Hip and knee kinematics and sEMG of vastus lateralis, biceps (BF), and rectus femoris were recorded. For each repetition, hip abduction–adduction and flexion–extension and knee flexion–extension peak angular displacements and velocities, agonist and antagonist muscle activation were computed. Moreover, to monitor for the presence of myoelectric fatigue, if any, the median frequency of the sEMG was computed. All variables were normalized with respect to their individual maximum observed during the sequence of kicks. Linear regressions were fitted to each normalized parameter to test its relationship with the repetition number.

Results:

Linear-regression analysis showed that, during the sequence, the athletes modified their technique: Knee flexion, BF median frequency, hip abduction, knee-extension angular velocity, and BF antagonist activation significantly decreased. Conversely, hip flexion increased significantly.

Conclusions:

Since karate combat competitions require proper technical execution, training protocols combining severe fatigue and technical actions should be carefully proposed because of technique adaptations. Moreover, trainers and karate masters should consider including specific strength exercises for the BF and more generally for knee flexors.

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Glyn Howatson, Raphael Brandon and Angus M. Hunter

There is a great deal of research on the responses to resistance training; however, information on the responses to strength and power training conducted by elite strength and power athletes is sparse.

Purpose:

To establish the acute and 24-h neuromuscular and kinematic responses to Olympic-style barbell strength and power exercise in elite athletes.

Methods:

Ten elite track and field athletes completed a series of 3 back-squat exercises each consisting of 4 × 5 repetitions. These were done as either strength or power sessions on separate days. Surface electromyography (sEMG), bar velocity, and knee angle were monitored throughout these exercises and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), jump height, central activation ratio (CAR), and lactate were measured pre, post, and 24 h thereafter.

Results:

Repetition duration, impulse, and total work were greater (P < .01) during strength sessions, with mean power being greater (P < .01) after the power sessions. Lactate increased (P < .01) after strength but not power sessions. sEMG increased (P < .01) across sets for both sessions, with the strength session increasing at a faster rate (P < .01) and with greater activation (P < .01) by the end of the final set. MVC declined (P < .01) after the strength and not the power session, which remained suppressed (P < .05) 24 h later, whereas CAR and jump height remained unchanged.

Conclusion:

A greater neuromuscular and metabolic demand after the strength and not power session is evident in elite athletes, which impaired maximal-force production for up to 24 h. This is an important consideration for planning concurrent athlete training.

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Sofia I. Lampropoulou and Alexander V. Nowicky

The purported ergogenic actions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to motor cortex (M1) on force production and perception of effort were investigated using a 10-item numerical rating scale (0–10 NRS) in nonfatiguing bouts of a force-matching task utilizing isometric elbow flexion. Using a crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers received sham, anodal, and cathodal tDCS randomly for 10 min (1.5 mA, 62 μA/cm2) to the left M1 in a double-blind manner. Corticospinal excitability changes were also monitored using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with surface electromyography (sEMG) to monitor both motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and force-EMG from right m. biceps brachii and m. brachioradialis brachii. No significant differences between the verum and sham stimulation were obtained for elbow flexion maximum voluntary force, perception of effort, or sEMG. There were also no significant differences in MEP changes for the types of tDCS, which is consistent with reports that tDCS excitability effects are diminished during ongoing cognitive and motor activities.