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Youri Geurkink, Gilles Vandewiele, Maarten Lievens, Filip de Turck, Femke Ongenae, Stijn P.J. Matthys, Jan Boone and Jan G. Bourgois

(sRPE). 2 HR monitoring is widely used in soccer, but it has been suggested that HR monitoring underestimates or overestimates the intensity during intermittent activities. 4 , 5 Furthermore, HR monitoring requires both technical and physiological expertise to make an appropriate analysis. 6 The

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins, Aaron T. Scanlan and Vincent G. Kelly

heart rate (HR) and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). 1 Global positioning systems have been used extensively to measure external workload variables, including total distance and high-speed running distance, in rugby league, rugby union, Australian football, and soccer in matches 2 and

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Teun van Erp, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). This method made the measurement of TL independent of equipment. sRPE has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of TL 19 and has a good correlation with TRIMP in elite cyclists during different stages races. 20 sRPE is minimally influenced by the time of

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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

by the duration of the exercise session in minutes, the session RPE (sRPE). Banister et al 8 introduced the concept of TRIMP as a marker of TL based on the intensity of the exercise, calculated as the product of the average heart rate (HR) reserve and the duration of exercise. There are different

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Javier Raya-González, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Daniel Castillo, Javier Yanci and Maurizio Fanchini

noncontact injuries, both external load (ie, global positioning system) 15 and internal load (ie, session rating of perceived exertion [sRPE]) 13 variables have been used. However, according to the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study, 16 internal load markers have greater relevance as a risk factor than the

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Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann and Christoph Clephas

Purpose: To assess the effects of periodized versus nonperiodized dry-land strength training (DLST) on indices of swimming performance in well-trained adolescent swimmers. Methods: Sixteen athletes (10 boys and 6 girls; age 14.9 [1.1] y) performed similar endurance training for 16 weeks (29.1 [7.5] km·wk−1). During weeks 1 to 7, all athletes additionally performed 2 or 3 times weekly whole-body DLST (3 × 6–10 repetitions at 75–85% 1-repetition maximum [1RM]). Thereafter, the DLST frequency was maintained, but athletes were stratified into periodized (experimental, n = 9) and nonperiodized (control, n = 7) DLST groups. The experimental group performed maximal (3 × 3–4 repetitions at 85–90% 1RM) and explosive DLST (throws and unloaded jumps), while in the control group, DLST was maintained. Results: Swimming time at 4 mmol·L−1 of blood lactate improved after 7 weeks in both the experimental (+2.6% [1.8%], P = .033) and the control groups (+3.2% [2.4%], P = .081) and plateaued thereafter. Ten-meter start improved in both the experimental (−3.6% [2.5%], P = .039) and the control groups (−5.1% [2.2%], P = .054) throughout the entire intervention. Both groups improved in maximal weight lifted in half-squat (experimental, +19.6% [14.9%], P = .021; control, +25.7% [18.4%], P = .054) and bench press (experimental, +14.1% [4.8%], P = .018; control, +19.3% [11.1%], P = .051). Countermovement-jump height increased only in the experimental group throughout the intervention (+19.4% [7.0%], P = .024). The associations for the pooled changes in half-squat performance and 4 mmol·L−1 of blood lactate were statistically significant (r = .560, P = .024). Conclusions: The findings do not support the superior effects of DLST periodization in adolescent swimmers. However, the association between improvements in lower-body strength and swimming performance still indicates the importance of muscle strength in this age group.

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie, Brendan R. Scott, William J. Chivers, Colin E. Sanctuary and Ben J. Dascombe


To identify contributing factors to the incidence of illness for professional team-sport athletes, using training load (TL), self-reported illness, and well-being data.


Thirty-two professional rugby league players (26.0 ± 4.8 y, 99.1 ± 9.6 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m) were recruited from the same club. Players participated in prescribed training and responded to a series of questionnaires to determine the presence of self-reported illness and markers of well-being. Internal TL was determined using the session rating of perceived exertion. These data were collected over 29 wk, across the preparatory and competition macrocycles.


The predictive models developed recognized increases in internal TL (strain values of >2282 AU, weekly TL >2786 AU, and monotony >0.78 AU) to best predict when athletes are at increased risk of self-reported illness. In addition, a reduction in overall well-being (<7.25 AU) in the presence of increased internal TL, as previously stated, was highlighted as a contributor to self-reported-illness occurrence.


These results indicate that self-report data can be successfully used to provide a novel understanding of the interactions between competition-associated stressors experienced by professional team-sport athletes and their susceptibility to illness. This may help coaching staff more effectively monitor players during the season and potentially implement preventive measures to reduce the likelihood of illnesses occurring.

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Matthew D. Wright, Francisco Songane, Stacey Emmonds, Paul Chesterton, Matthew Weston and Shaun J. Mclaren

practically using session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), which provide a valid quantification of relative exercise intensity and internal load across a range of exercise modalities. 5 , 6 Ratings of perceived exertion are also cost- and time-effective, lending to girls RTC programs where resources can

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Håvard Wiig, Thor Einar Andersen, Live S. Luteberget and Matt Spencer

interaction of the external load and the individual characteristics of the athlete. 5 Internal load is commonly represented by heart rate–derived training impulse, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), or sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), where sRPE-TL seems to have the strongest relationship with

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Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei and Thomas Wyss

training sessions, the concept of training impulse was proposed to implement different training parameters into a single measure. 1 , 3 – 5 Either HR zones or RPE values are multiplied by the corresponding training session duration in minutes. Session RPE (sRPE) was shown to be correlated to objective