The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
David Kavanagh and Steven Hausfeld
Previous research has established that happy and sad moods can affect persistence and success on a cognitive task, with happiness leading to higher performance and self-efficacy. Two experiments examined whether happiness also produces increased performance on a physical task and tested whether self-efficacy mediated the results. When mood inductions covered the full range from happy to sad, mood did influence physical performance. However, evidence regarding self-efficacy was equivocal. Efficacy for the performed task was unaffected by mood, although it remained a good predictor of performance. Since mood did alter efficacy for a nonperformed but more familiar task, inconsistent efficacy results could reflect task differences. The findings offer prospects for the use of mood inductions in practical sporting situations.
Column-editor : Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
product consumption typically feel happy and dissatisfied consumers usually feel sad. Happiness and sadness are diametric opposites, which preclude the simultaneous experience of two opposite emotions ( Larsen, McGraw, & Cacioppo, 2001 ). In contrast to traditional approaches to consumer emotions
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue
, they began the emotion manipulation task. Based on existing study ( Ekman, 1992 ), the current work utilized a total of six emotions by specifying the negative emotions into sadness, anger, disgust, and fear, in addition to the positive emotion of happiness and with a neutral emotion serving as a
Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller
index of 25 and above as overweight or obese. 20 The body mass index information was calculated by the 2013 NHIS. In terms of mental health, this research included 3 aspects related to depression and stress. The survey asked respondents how often in the past 30 days they felt so sad that nothing could
Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert
%), and pressure in head (70%) (see Table 4 ). Additional concussions impacted symptoms differently. For their most recent concussion, individuals who have had prior concussions experienced statistically worsened symptoms of “irritable,” “sensitive to light,” “sensitive to noise,” “sadness,” “nervous or
Pamela J. Surkan, Louise M. Ryan, Harvey W. Bidwell, Daniel R. Brooks, Karen E. Peterson and Matthew W. Gillman
Limited data address psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity.
We assessed associations of regular and recent leisure-time physical activity with physical/mental well-being, social support, and civic trust and reciprocity in a working-class Boston neighborhood. We surveyed 409 adults in 1999 to 2000 using methodology from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Adjusted for demographic variables, correlates of regular physical activity included feeling energetic/healthy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 2.3 for each one of four categories), feeling worried/tense/anxious (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0), pain interfering with usual activities (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.8), feeling sad/blue/depressed (OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5 to 0.9), inadequate sleep/rest (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0) and feeling satisfied with life (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6, for very satisfied versus other). We found similar associations for participation in any physical activity.
Lack of energy, anxiety, pain, sadness, poor sleep, and dissatisfaction with life were associated with low physical activity levels.
Christy Greenleaf, Trent Petrie, Justine Reel and Jennifer Carter
Petrie and Greenleaf (2007) presented a psychosocial model of disordered eating for female athletes. Based upon the 2007 model, the present study examined four key psychosocial variables: internalization, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect, as predictors of bulimic symptoms among NCAA Division I female athletes. Two hundred four women (N = 204) participated and were drawn from three different universities and competed in 17 different varsity sports. After controlling for the effects of body mass and social desirability, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the psychosocial variables explained 42% of the variance in bulimic symptoms. In the full model, higher levels of body dissatisfaction, more dietary restraint, and stronger feelings of guilt were associated with bulimic symptomatology. Internalization of the sociocultural ideal as well as feelings of fear, hostility, or sadness were unrelated.
Anca Gaston, Anita Grace Cramp and Harry Prapavessis
Little is known about how women who exercise during pregnancy are perceived. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the positive exercise stereotype (i.e., the general tendency for exercisers to be evaluated more positively than nonexercisers) extends to pregnancy. Adult women (N = 202, mean age = 38.55 years, SD = 13.46) were randomly assigned to read a description of one of the following pregnant female targets: regular exerciser, active living, excessive exerciser, nonexerciser, or control. Participants then rated the target on 12 personality and 8 physical dimensions. MANOVAs revealed a significant main effect for both physical and personality attributes (p < .05). The regular exerciser and active living target received the most positive ratings on both physical and personality dimensions. Whereas the excessive exerciser received high ratings on most physical characteristics, this target was also perceived as meaner and sadder, and having fewer friends than all other targets.