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Francis Degache, Jean-Benoît Morin, Lukas Oehen, Kenny Guex, Guido Giardini, Federico Schena, Guillaume Y. Millet and Grégoire P. Millet

The aim of study was to examine the effects of the world’s most challenging mountain ultramarathon (Tor des Géants [TdG]) on running mechanics. Mechanical measurements were undertaken in male runners (n = 16) and a control group (n = 8) before (PRE), during (MID), and after (POST) the TdG. Contact (t c) and aerial (t a) times, step frequency (f), and running velocity (v) were sampled. Spring-mass parameters of peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), and vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness were computed. Significant decreases were observed in runners between PRE and MID for t a (P < .001), F max (P < .001), Δz (P < .05), and k leg (P < .01). In contrast, f significantly increased (P < .05) between PRE and MID-TdG. No further changes were observed at POST for any of those variables, with the exception of k leg, which went back to PRE. During the TdG, experienced runners modified their running pattern and spring-mass behavior mainly during the first half. The current results suggest that these mechanical changes aim at minimizing the pain occurring in lower limbs mainly during the eccentric phases. One cannot rule out that this switch to a “safer” technique may also aim to anticipate further damages.

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Salvatore Masala, Roberto Fiori, Mario Raguso, Christine Ojango, Marco Morini, Alessandro Cuzzolino, Eros Calabria and Giovanni Simonetti


Chronic pubalgia affects around 10% of athletes.


To determine the role of pulse-dose radiofrequency (PDRF) in athletes with chronic pubalgia and investigate the causes with imaging.


Prospective nonrandomized single-group study.


PDRF was performed on 32 patients with a chronic pain that had been refractory to conservative therapies during the last 3 mo.


The genital branches of the genitofemoral, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves and the obturator nerve were the goals of treatment. A 10-cm, 20-gauge cannula was inserted with a percutaneous access on the upper and lower edges of the iliopubic branch. After the spindle was removed, a radiofrequency needle with a 10-mm “active tip” was inserted. The radiofrequency technique was performed with 1200 pulses at 45 V and 20-ms duration, followed by a 480-ms silent phase.

Main Outcome Measures:

The follow-up with a clinical examination was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 9 mo after the procedure. During the follow-up visits, the patients were asked to rate their pain on a 0–10 VAS scale.


All of the enrolled patients completed the study. Mean VAS score before the treatment was 8.4 ± 0.6. Twenty-four patients had a reduction of pain VAS scores more than 50% during all follow-up visits and started training and physiotherapy in the days after the radiofrequency procedure. Six patients, each treated 2 times, had a reduction more than 50% of VAS scores and could start training and physiotherapy only after the 2nd procedure. One patient had no pain relief with 2 treatments. Pain intensity decreased up to 9 mo in 31 patients (mean VAS scores 3.4 ± 0.5 at 6 mo and 3.8 ± 0.9 at 9 mo). No complications were observed.


PDRF is an effective and safe technique in management of chronic pubalgia in athletes.

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Guilherme S. Nunes, Débora Faria Wolf, Daniel Augusto dos Santos, Marcos de Noronha and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

. This indicates that the effects of the mobilization may be limited to when there is, in fact, a positional problem in the joint. Also, the results from the asymptomatic participants indicate that the mobilization is a safe technique, as it did not induce pain and did not cause any changes in healthy

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Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder and Rafael Heiss

enables to evaluate tissue elasticity in a fixed-size ROI placed at the basis of a conventional gray scale ultrasound examination. ARFI has been considered to be a safe technique, quick and easy to perform, and to provide a high reliability. 16 The technique has been successfully established and