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Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo and Francisco Segado

Because sailing is an aquatic sport, sailors are subject to continuous changes that occur in the environment ( Allen & De Jong, 2006 ; Manzanares, Segado, & Menayo, 2012 ; Spurway, Legg, & Hale, 2007 ). Natural elements such as the wind and sea are constantly changing, as are the actions of

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli

Sailing is a widespread, popular activity performed for either competitive or recreational purposes. It includes different and various disciplines performed with many classes of boats. Distances can be covered with periods lasting from a few hours to several weeks. The common characteristic of all

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Margot Callewaert, Stefan Geerts, Evert Lataire, Jan Boone, Marc Vantorre and Jan Bourgois

Purpose:

To develop a sailing ergometer that accurately simulates upwind sailing exercise.

Methods:

A sailing ergometer that measures roll moment accompanied by a biofeedback system that allows imposing a certain quasi-isometric upwind sailing protocol (ie, 18 bouts of 90-s hiking at constantly varying hiking intensity interspersed with 10 s to tack) was developed. Ten male high-level Laser sailors performed an incremental cycling test (ICT; ie, step protocol at 80 W + 40 W/3 min) and an upwind sailing test (UST). During both, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), respiratory-exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were measured. During UST, also the difference between the required and produced hiking moment (HM) was calculated as error score (ES). HR, VO2, and VE were calculated relative to their peak values determined during ICT. After UST, the subjects were questioned about their opinion on the resemblance between this UST and real-time upwind sailing.

Results:

An average HM of 89.0% ± 2.2% HMmax and an average ES of 4.1% ± 1.8% HMmax were found. Mean HR, VO2, and VE were, respectively, 80% ± 4% HRpeak, 39.5% ± 4.5% VO2peak, and 30.3% ± 3.7% VEpeak. Both HM and cardiorespiratory values appear to be largely comparable to literature reports during on-water upwind sailing. Moreover, the subjects gave the upwind sailing ergometer a positive resemblance score.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that this ergometer accurately simulates on-water upwind sailing exercise. As such, this ergometer could be a great help in performance diagnostics and training follow-up.

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Giannis Arnaoutis, Panagiotis Verginadis, Adam D. Seal, Ioannis Vogiatzis, Labros S. Sidossis and Stavros A. Kavouras

previously mentioned studies, there is a lack of literature directly investigating progressive hydration status during multi-stage elite training or competitive events. Olympic Laser Class sailing is a physically demanding sport placing significant thermoregulatory strain on the body in warm and humid

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Susan J. Hall, Jane A. Kent and Vern R. Dickinson

Prolonged trapezing during sailing often results in low back pain among elite sailors. Modifications of the trapeze harness have been proposed as one approach to ameliorating this problem. To evaluate six harnesses incorporating novel features that had tested well during pilot work, myoelectric activity was monitored at C5, T6, and L5 levels of sacrospinalis and at an abdominal site while five elite sailors wore the harnesses. Integrated EMG (IEMG) values were stored by a microcomputer at periodic intervals during each 10-min trial, as each subject maintained a static horizontal trapezing position in the laboratory. Factorial repeated-measures ANOVA indicated no change in IEMG values over time, but significant (p<0.001) differences among harnesses at all four electrode sites. Features of trapeze harness design that appear to minimize muscular tension include heavy, rigid padding throughout the harness, full-length shoulder-to-buttocks support of the trunk, and adjustable leg strap supports as opposed to a crotch strap.

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Boris Blumenstein and Iris Orbach

Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes’ personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes’ disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

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Deborah Fearnley, Louise Sutton, John O’Hara, Amy Brightmore, Roderick King and Carlton Cooke

The Vendée Globe is a solo round-the-world sailing race without stopovers or assistance, a physically demanding challenge for which appropriate nutrition should maintain energy balance and ensure optimum performance. This is an account of prerace nutritional preparation with a professional and experienced female racer and assessment of daily nutritional intake (NI) during the race using a multimethod approach. A daily energy intake (EI) of 15.1 MJ/day was recommended for the race and negotiated down by the racer to 12.7 MJ/day, with carbohydrate and fluid intake goals of 480 g/day and 3,020 ml/day, respectively. Throughout the 99-day voyage, daily NI was recorded using electronic food diaries and inventories piloted during training races. NI was assessed and a postrace interview and questionnaire were used to evaluate the intervention. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed pre- (37 days) and postrace (11 days) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body mass was measured before the racer stepped on the yacht and immediately postrace. Mean EI was 9.2 MJ/day (2.4–14.3 MJ/day), representing a negative energy balance of 3.5 MJ/day under the negotiated EI goal, evidenced by a 7.9-kg loss of body mass (FM –7.5 kg, FFM –0.4 kg) during the voyage, with consequent underconsumption of carbohydrate by ~130 g/day. According to the postrace yacht food inventory, self-reported EI was underreported by 7%. This intervention demonstrates the practicality of the NI approach and assessment, but the racer’s nutrition strategy can be further improved to facilitate meeting more optimal NI goals for performance and health. It also shows that evaluation of NI is possible in this environment over prolonged periods, which can provide important information for optimizing nutritional strategies for ocean racing.

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Santiago Lopez, Jan G. Bourgois, Enrico Tam, Paolo Bruseghini and Carlo Capelli

Purpose:

To explore the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of 9 Optimist sailors (12.7 ± 0.8 y, 153 ± 9 cm, 41 ± 6 kg, sailing career 6.2 ± 1 y, peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] 50.5 ± 4.5 mL · min−1 · kg−1) during on-water upwind sailing with various wind intensities (W).

Methods:

In a laboratory session, peak V̇O2, beat-by-beat cardiac output (Q̇), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (f H) were measured using a progressive cycle ramp protocol. Steady-state V̇O2, Q̇, MAP, and f H at 4 submaximal workloads were also determined. During 2 on-water upwind sailing tests (constant course and with tacks), W, Q̇, MAP, and f H were measured for 15 min. On-water V̇O2 was estimated on the basis of steady-state f H measured on water and of the individual ΔV̇O2f H relationship obtained in the laboratory.

Results:

V̇O2, f H, and Q̇ expressed as percentage of the corresponding peak values were linearly related with W; exercise intensity during on-water sailing corresponded to 46–48% of V̇O2peak. MAP and total vascular peripheral resistance (TPR = MAP/Q̇) were larger (P < .005) during on-water tests (+39% and +50%, respectively) than during cycling, and they were correlated with W. These responses were responsible for larger values of the double (DP) and triple (TP) products of the heart during sailing than during cycling (P < .005) (+37% and +32%, respectively).

Conclusions:

These data indicate that the cardiovascular system was particularly stressed during upwind sailing even though the exercise intensity of this activity was not particularly high.

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Wayne Halliwell

Despite the fact that Olympic sailing is a psychologically demanding sport, few countries use the services of sport psychologists to mentally prepare their athletes for the rigors of international competition. At the 1988 Summer Olympic Games only Canada and France had sport psychologists working on site with the athletes during the Games. This article describes the educational, mental skills approach used to prepare the Canadian Olympic Sailing Team as well as the athlete and coach mental preparation programs. Components of the team’s Olympic Preparation Plan are outlined and the use of thorough planning and preparation to bolster the athletes’ feelings of readiness and confidence is discussed. The importance of providing athletes with a distraction-free environment during the Games is also discussed, along with a plan for accommodating the needs of their family members and the media.

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Margot Callewaert, Jan Boone, Bert Celie, Dirk De Clercq and Jan G. Bourgois

The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (m. vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high-level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8–14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and re-oxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40% VO2peak, 30% VEpeak and 70% HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF decrease, RMS increase, and deoxy[Hb+Mb] increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.