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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Matthew B. Fortes, Katharine Richardson, James L.J. Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, α-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (p< .05), and CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a higher saliva lysozyme concentration in the first hour of recovery than with CON (125% greater at 30 min, 94% greater at 60 min; p< .01). Saliva SIgA concentration decreased below preexercise concentrations 90–150 min postexercise (p< .001), with no effect of CHO-PRO. Saliva α-amylase activity was unaffected by exercise or CHO-PRO refeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva α-amylase and SIgA responses.

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Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman, and Guilherme M. Puga

before the exercise sessions after 20 min of quiet rest, immediately after the sessions, and every 15 min for 1 hr after the training period. These measurements were performed with the patients in a seated position in a calm and silent environment. For all of the experimental sessions, saliva samples

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres, and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

by bioelectrical impedance r20 software (InBody ® ). Cytokines, Testosterone, Cortisol, and IgA Assessment Saliva samples were collected under stimulation for 1 minute using Salivettes ® (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany), before, immediately after, 6 hours, and 24 hours after the experimental session

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, and Alexandre Moreira

association between SIgA and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), in which a high incidence of infections was reported in individuals with a selective deficiency of SIgA or low saliva flow rates. Additionally, these researchers reported some findings suggesting that a high level of SIgA was associated

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou, and Bareket Falk

, salivary samples are increasingly used to measure hormonal concentrations in adults ( 3 , 16 , 26 , 27 , 29 ), primarily because saliva sample collection is noninvasive, inexpensive, safe, and simple to obtain. This method of sample collection is also ideal in pediatric research due to its noninvasive

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver

characteristics of each dehydration type. Potential candidate markers to identify both types of dehydration are urine, saliva, ratings of thirst and cardiovascular parameters, including resting and postural changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and heart rate variability (HRV; Cheuvront, Ely, Kenefick

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Sam Coad, Bon Gray, George Wehbe, and Christopher McLellan


To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play.


Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8 ± 2.4 y, 186.9 ± 7.9 cm, 87.4 ± 7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA.


Player load during match 3 (1266 ± 124.6 AU) was significantly (P < .01) greater than in match 1 (1096 ± 115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082 ± 90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P < .01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P < .01) elevated player load.


The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin, and Yann Le Meur

performed and saliva samples were collected before the preconditioning session (Pre), immediately after  the preloading session (Post 1), before the testing session (Post 2), and after the testing session (Post 3). It is important to mention that the players who took part in this study were under

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Camila G. Freitas, Marcelo S. Aoki, Clovis A. Franciscon, Ademir F.S. Arruda, Christopher Carling, and Alexandre Moreira

This study investigated the effect of a 2-week overloading training phase followed by a 2-week tapering phase on internal training load (ITL), salivary cortisol, stress tolerance, and upper respiratory tract infections symptoms (URTI) in 11 male young soccer players (16.0 ± 0.5 yrs). Ratings of perceived exertion (session-RPE) were taken after each training session (N = 194) to determine ITL. Saliva sampling was conducted at the end of each week and cortisol concentration assessed by ELISA. DALDA and WURSS-21 questionnaires were administered every week to evaluate stress tolerance and severity of URTI respectively. The number of athletes reporting URTI symptoms was recorded. The overloading phase promoted greater ITL and a higher resting cortisol concentration than the tapering phase (P < .05). While no significant changes in stress tolerance or URTI severity were observed, the number of athletes reporting URTI symptoms was higher during the overloading phase. A significant correlation was observed between symptoms of stress and severity of URTI (rs=-.71; P = .01). The results indicate that an integrated approach using psychological measures (session-RPE and DALDA), self-reports of URTI symptoms, and endocrine responses (cortisol) to training are pertinent for monitoring young soccer players.

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Christian J. Cook, Blair T. Crewther, Liam P. Kilduff, Linda L. Agnew, Phillip Fourie, and Benjamin G. Serpell

, for a repeat sprint protocol. Workload for the repeat sprint protocol was prescribed as a proportion of work capacity established from previous testing. Blood and passive drool saliva samples were collected from participants 5 minutes prior to the sprint protocol (pre) and 5 and 60 minutes after