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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) provides a noninvasive biological marker that may be useful to monitor football players responses to training 1 , 2 and to identify players at risk of upper respiratory tract (URT) infection. 3 Indeed, low levels of salivary IgA over a training period

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira

, Francis JL , Fricker PA , Clancy RL . Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 ( 1 ): 67 – 73 . PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012 9927012 22. Harbuz MS , Burns SL , Bunt L , Hucklebridge F

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Christine V. Crooks, Clare R. Wall, Martin L. Cross and Kay J. Rutherfurd-Markwick

Secretory IgA in saliva (s-IgA) is a potential mucosal immune correlate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) status. Nutritional supplements may improve mucosal immunity, and could be beneficial to athletes who are at increased risk of URTI. In this study, 35 distance runners (15 female, 20 male, age 35 to 58 y) consumed a supplement of either bovine colostrum or placebo for 12 wk. Saliva samples were taken prior to training at baseline, monthly during supplementation, and 2 wk post supplementation. Median levels of s-IgA increased by 79% in the colostrum group after 12 wk intervention, and the time-dependent change from baseline value was significant (P = 0.0291). This significance was still apparent after adjusting for training volume and self-reporting of upper respiratory symptoms. This study has demonstrated increased s-IgA levels among a cohort of athletes following colostrum supplementation. While this result is statistically significant, its physiological interpretation must be viewed with caution due to the small numbers in this study and the large variability in s-IgA levels.

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Edward E. Pistilli, David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, David E. Kaminsky, Alan C. Utter, Debra M. Vinci, J. Mark Davis, Omar R. Fagoaga and Sandra L. Nehlsen-Cannarella

Immune changes in 75 younger (age 37.4 ± 0.9 years) and 23 older (57.0 ± 1.4 years) runners were compared after a competitive marathon, with blood samples collected pre- and immediately and 1.5 hr postrace. Race times were slower for the older group (4.7 ± 0.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.1 hr, p = .015), but both groups performed at similar intensity (83.4 ± 0.9 vs. 82.9 ± 0.5% HRmax). The pattern of change in plasma cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and blood leukocyte subsets did not differ significantly between the groups postrace. Blood lymphocyte counts were 20–24% lower in the older runners at each time point because of reduced T-cell counts. Postrace, plasma levels of IL-1ra, -10, -6, and -8 rose strongly in all runners, and salivary IgA secretion rate decreased, but no group differences in the pattern of change were noted. In conclusion, younger and older runners experienced similar hormonal and immune changes after running a marathon.

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David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, Steven R. McAnulty, Fuxia Jin and Kendra R. Maxwell

The purpose of this study was to test the influence of 2.4 g/d fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) over 6 wk on exercise performance, inflammation, and immune measures in 23 trained cyclists before and after a 3-d period of intense exercise. Participants were randomized to n-3 PUFA (n = 11; 2,000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo (n = 12) groups. They ingested supplements under double-blind methods for 6 wk before and during a 3-d period in which they cycled for 3 hr/d at ~57% Wmax with 10-km time trials inserted during the final 15 min of each 3-hr bout. Blood and saliva samples were collected before and after the 6-wk supplementation period, immediately after the 3-hr exercise bout on the third day, and 14 hr postexercise and analyzed for various immune-function and inflammation parameters. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in a significant increase in plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on 10-km time-trial performance; preexercise outcome measures; exercise-induced increases in plasma cytokines, myeloperoxidase, blood total leukocytes, serum C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase; or the decrease in the salivary IgA:protein ratio. In conclusion, 6 wk supplementation with a large daily dose of n-3 PUFAs increased plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on exercise performance or in countering measures of inflammation and immunity before or after a 3-d period of 9 hr of heavy exertion.

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Yoonyoung Hwang, Jonghoon Park and Kiwon Lim

We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

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Jennifer M. Sacheck, Helen M. Rasmussen, Meghan M. Hall, Tamar Kafka, Jeffrey B. Blumberg and Christina D. Economos

To investigate the association between pregame snacks varying in macronutrient content and exercise intensity, physiological stress, and fatigue in young soccer players. One hour before a 50-min soccer game, children (n = 79; 9.1 ± 0.8 y) were randomly assigned to consume a raisin-, peanut-butter-, or cereal-based snack. Body mass index, blood glucose, and salivary measures of stress (cortisol and immunoglobulin A-IgA) were measured pre- and post-game. Exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and fatigue. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between pregame snacks and biochemical outcomes. Postgame glucose and cortisol increased [12.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL (p < .001) and 0.04 ± 0.10 μg/dL (p < .05), respectively] and IgA decreased −2.3 ± 9.6 μg/mL; p < .001) from pregame values. The pregame snack was not associated with exercise intensity or post-game outcome; however, children consuming the cereal-based (high-sugar and high-glycemic index (GI)) snack exercised more intensely than the 2 lower-GI snack groups (p < .05). Children who consumed the high-sugar, high-GI snack also reported more symptoms of fatigue (p < .05). A high-sugar, high-GI pregame snack was associated with exercise intensity and fatigue but not changes in blood sugar or stress biomarkers following a soccer game in children.

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

inverse relationship between salivary IgA levels and incidence of illness in athletes, 11 and changes in salivary IgA levels may also indicate periods of excessive training or inadequate recovery. 12 Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) produced in the salivary glands has been shown to be a reliable indicator

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

WA , Pyne DB , et al . Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1999 ; 31 : 67 – 73 . PubMed ID: 9927012 doi:10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012 9927012 7. Neville V , Gleeson M , Folland JP . Salivary IgA as a

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

values than the HIV− group 6 hours after the training session (Figure  2A ). Figure 2 —Salivary concentrations of cortisol (A), testosterone (B), testosterone/cortisol ratio (C), and salivary IgA (D) in HIV− and HIV+ groups at baseline, immediately after, 6 hours, and 24 hours after the combined training