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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

inverse relationship between salivary IgA levels and incidence of illness in athletes, 11 and changes in salivary IgA levels may also indicate periods of excessive training or inadequate recovery. 12 Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) produced in the salivary glands has been shown to be a reliable indicator

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Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Laura Capranica, Giulia De Ioannon, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Sergio Mignardi, Giovanni Messina, Stefano Villani and Giuseppe Cibelli

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of a solo ultraendurance open-water swim on autonomic and nonautonomic control of heart rate (HR).

Methods:

A male athlete (age 48 y, height 172 cm, body mass 68 kg, BMI 23 kg/m2) underwent HR-variability (HRV) and circulating catecholamine evaluations at different times before and after an ultraendurance swim crossing the Adriatic Sea from Italy to Albania. HRV was measured in 5-min segments and quantified by time and frequency domain. Circulating catecholamines were estimated by salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) assay.

Results:

The athlete completed 78.1 km in 23:44 h:min. After arrival, sAA levels had increased by 102.6%. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indexes decreased, as well (mean RR interval, −29,7%; standard deviation of normal mean RR interval, −63,1%; square root of mean squared successive differences between normal-to-normal RR intervals, −49.3%; total power, −74.3%; low frequency, −78.0%; high frequency, −76.4%), while HR increased by 41.8%. At 16-h recovery, sAA had returned to preevent values, while a stable tachycardia was accompanied by reduced HRV measures.

Conclusion:

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study reporting cardiac autonomic adjustments to an extreme and challenging ultraendurance open-water swim. The findings confirmed that the autonomic drives depend on exercise efforts. Since HRV changes did not mirror the catecholamine response 16 h postevent, the authors assume that the ultraendurance swim differently influenced cardiac function by both adaptive autonomic and nonautonomic patterns.

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Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua and Christine Le Scanff

Purpose:

The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.

Methods:

Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.

Results:

Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

.03480090092034 18. Chrousos GP. Stress and disorders of the stress system . Nat Rev Endocrinol . 2009 ; 5 : 374 – 381 . PubMed ID: 19488073 doi:10.1038/nrendo.2009.106 19488073 10.1038/nrendo.2009.106 19. Chatterton RT Jr , Vogelsong KM , Lu YC , Ellman AB , Hudgens GA . Salivary alpha-amylase

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

, Burkett B , Leicht A , McKean M . Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability . PLoS ONE . 2015 ; 10 : e0127749 . PubMed ID: 26043224 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127749 26043224 10.1371/journal.pone.0127749 11

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

; 12 ( suppl 2 ): S2-87 – S2-94 . PubMed ID: 27834554 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0404 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0404 29. Leicht CA , Paulson TAW , Goosey-Tolfrey VL , Bishop NC . Salivary alpha amylase not chromogranin A reflects sympathetic activity: exercise responses in elite male wheelchair

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Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman and Guilherme M. Puga

shown that the salivary concentration of TP, electrolyte levels (especially Na + ), and the activity of salivary alpha-amylase on saliva can be indirect markers of the intensity and stress caused by exercise, similar to lactate concentration ( Chicharro, Lucia, Perez, Vaquero, & Ureña, 1998 ; Oliveira

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

.4 Valenzano et al 34 1 M 48 Well-trained HR, salivary alpha-amylase This is the first study reporting cardiac autonomic adjustments to an extreme and challenging OWS. 78.1 28–30 Zamparo et al 35 5 M, 5 W 17.8 ± 4.0 (M), 24.2 ± 5.9 (W) Elite ANT, BF, BMI, SL, SR, VO 2 , BL The development of fatigue affects