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Ryland Morgans, Adam Owen, Dominic Doran, Barry Drust and James P. Morton


To monitor resting salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in international soccer players during the short-term training period that precedes international match play.


In a repeated-measure design, saliva samples were obtained from 13 outfield soccer players who participated in the training camps preceding 7 games (5 home and 2 away) of the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign. Samples were obtained daily for 4 d preceding each game (and analyzed for SIgA using the IPRO oral-fluid-collection system) at match day minus 1 (MD-1), minus 2 (MD-2), minus 3 (MD-3), and minus 4 (MD-4).


SIgA displayed a progressive decline (P = .01) during the 4-d training period (MD-4, 365 ± 127 μg/mL; MD-3, 348 ± 154 μg/mL; MD-2, 290 ± 138 μg/mL; MD-1, 256 ± 90 μg/mL) such that MD-1 values were significantly lower (P = .01) than both MD-4 and MD-3. The 95% confidence intervals for the differences between MD-1 and MD-4 were –191 to –26 and between MD-1 and MD-3 were –155 to –28.


Data demonstrate that a short-term soccer-training camp in preparation for international competition induces detectable perturbations to mucosal immunity. Future studies should monitor SIgA (as a practical and noninvasive measure of immunity) alongside internal and external measures of training load in an attempt to strategically individualize training and nutritional strategies that may support optimal preparation for high-level competition.

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Yoonyoung Hwang, Jonghoon Park and Kiwon Lim

We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) provides a noninvasive biological marker that may be useful to monitor football players responses to training 1 , 2 and to identify players at risk of upper respiratory tract (URT) infection. 3 Indeed, low levels of salivary IgA over a training period

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

commonly upper respiratory tract illness (URI) 3 which can directly impair performance or limit training availability. 2 A key antibody in host defense is salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The sIgA has been acknowledged as the first line of defense in mucosal immunity. 4 Several authors have

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira

. Salivary sIgA and cortisol concentrations in response to music therapy in patients with cancer . Psychoneuroimmunology research society meeting , Galveston, Texas . 1999 ; 6 : 224 . 23. Hucklebridge F , Clow A , Evans P . The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

have supported this, displaying increases in salivary cortisol (sC) 4 , 7 or decreases in salivary testosterone (sT), 1 , 8 as a result of IT. In addition, Coutts et al 9 proposed that salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) may also be a sensitive marker in response to IT. This is due to