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“Specializers” versus “Samplers” in Youth Sport: Comparing Experiences and Outcomes

Leisha Strachan, Jean Côté, and Janice Deakin

The purpose of the current study was to examine two different trajectories of sport participation and explore any similarities or differences that may result regarding personal development and sport outcomes. Seventy-four youth athletes (40 “specializers” and 34 “samplers”) were recruited for the current study and four measures were employed to assess sport experiences and outcomes. Discriminant function analyses revealed no differences between groups in asset possession or sources of enjoyment however, differences were reported in sport experiences and burnout. The “samplers” reported more experiences regarding the integration of sport and family as well as linkages to the community. Although the “specializers” reported higher levels of physical/emotional exhaustion than did the “samplers,” they also reported more experiences related to diverse peer groups. The differences highlight the importance of examining specific pathways of development in sport to gain a deeper understanding of youths’ experiences in sport.

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Early Sport Specialization from a Pedagogical Perspective

Peter A. Hastie

This paper examines the literature within sport pedagogy that addresses early sport specialization. The paper is presented in two sections. First, research on a number of common sense assumptions about early specialization is examined from a pedagogical perspective: (a) Is limiting youths’ experiences to a single sport the best path to elite status? (b) Do early specializers receive better coaching? (c) Do coaches of early specializers have better sport content knowledge? (d) Do coaches of early specializers have better planning behaviors? (e) Do instructional climates differ between specialized and diversified coaching settings? Second, a research agenda from a pedagogical perspective is proposed for answering the questions posed in the first section, as well as the various assessments and protocols that would allow for these questions to be answered.

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Exploring Early Sport Specialization: Associations With Psychosocial Outcomes

Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik, and Nikki Barczak

late specializers, and then samplers. 2) Early specializers will self-report the highest levels of other retrospective maladaptive psychological outcomes (i.e., amotivation and perceived sport stress), and the lowest levels of adaptive psychological outcomes (i.e., intrinsic motivation and perceived

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Markers of Early Specialization and Their Relationships With Burnout and Dropout in Swimming

Heather K. Larson, Bradley W. Young, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Wendy M. Rodgers

, Strachan, Côté, and Deakin ( 2009 ) found minimal differences between “samplers” and “specializers” on a variety of measures. Although specializers scored a bit higher than samplers on emotional/physical exhaustion, they also reported more experiences related to diverse peer groups and did not differ from

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Low Doses of Caffeine: Enhancement of Physical Performance in Elite Adolescent Male Soccer Players

Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers, and Neil Clarke

Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo with a No-U-Turn Sampler. 22 All models were checked for convergence ( r ˆ = 1 ), and graphical posterior predictive checks were used by bayesplot (Gabry, Mahr, and Buerkner, bayesplot, version 1.5.0, 2018). Fifteen participants were included in the multilevel model but

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Dietary β-Alanine Intake Assessed by Food Records Does Not Associate With Muscle Carnosine Content in Healthy, Active, Omnivorous Men and Women

Nathalia Saffioti Rezende, Giulia Cazetta Bestetti, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bruna Caruso Mazzolani, Fabiana Infante Smaira, Alina Dumas, Paul Swinton, Bryan Saunders, and Eimear Dolan

automatic sampler, using a cut injection method, which is described in detail elsewhere ( Saunders et al., 2017 ). Quantification was performed using peak areas, which were calculated by the HPLC chromatography data software and inspected individually for error and consistency by a trained researcher

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General Mindfulness Differentially Predicted by Male and Female Exercisers’ Perceptions of Motivational Climate and Goal Orientations

Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

 Caucasian 53  Mindfulness 7  Sophomore 11  African American 27  Boot Camp 5  Junior 26  Asian 8  Kickboxing 5  Senior 46  Mixed 8  Boxing Conditioning <5  Graduate Student or Other 5  Asian Indian 4  Kickball & Dodgeball <5  American Indian or Hawaiian 1  Personal Fitness Sampler <5 Major  Pilates <5

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Coaches Coaching Psychological Skills—Why Not? A Framework and Questionnaire Development

Rosemary A. Arthur, Nichola Callow, Ross Roberts, and Freya Glendinning

with a Gibbs sampler and a fixed number of 100,000 iterations for two MCMC chains. This procedure allowed for the examination of model convergence. We assessed model convergence with the potential scale reduction factor (PSR). Model convergence is evident when the PSR value lies between 1.0 and 1.1 for

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The Current Youth Sport Landscape: Identifying Critical Research Issues

Daniel Gould

groups (e.g., male and female participants, specializers vs. sport samplers) are examined over time ( Holt, Pankow, Tamminen et al., 2018 ). A lack of high-quality physical education and unstructured free-play opportunities is also linked to the access issue. For example, only 8% of elementary, 6.4% of

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The Dropout From Youth Sport Crisis: Not as Simple as It Appears

Anthony Battaglia, Gretchen Kerr, and Katherine Tamminen

sport withdrawal theorized that dropouts can be classified as samplers, participants, and transfers . A sampler dropout tries multiple sports but fails to make a commitment and withdraws after 1 year or less. A participant dropout commits to one or more sports for several years and can be further