All-Stars, 46 and the Eastern American Eagles from the Eastern American Rugby Union. 47 These tours failed to attract any negative sanctions from any of the controlling bodies, a situation probably due to rugby’s minority status within the United States and South African baseball’s lack of a real
aggression and violence in sport, the importance of the rules or laws of sports is emphasized. 1 The special nature of sport means that sanctioned aggression in sport is permissible and therefore different from aggression in everyday life. Kerr (1999) defined aggression in team contact sport as follows: In
Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried, and Brian P. Soebbing
misconduct occurs, the resulting sanctions (e.g., fines, suspension, expulsion, probation, and public reprimand) from social-control agents often set the foundation of how that specific act of wrongdoing will be subsequently assessed and enforced. Within the last point, the notion of organizational layering
Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge
). However, much of the available prevalence data comes from self-report methods, and there remains a lack of body mass data from the larger databases of sanctioning bodies that may reflect national and international practice. In 2015, the California State Athletic Commission (CSAC) began collecting body
Mary G. McDonald
.” Part of a broader pattern of State-sanctioned colonial violence and genocide, agents of the settler colonial State and Christian religious institutions subjected many of these children to harsh treatment, including physical and sexual abuse, as well as systematic attempts to eliminate Indigenous
Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann, and Karim Chamari
investigate the technical-tactical actions, which result in serious injury and doc-stoppage. Specifically, the study aims to (1) determine the injury incidence, injury mechanisms, etiologies, and potential risk factors for injury during sanctioned MMA bouts taking place over a 12-month period in the UFC
Christopher John Stevens, Megan L. Ross, Julien D. Périard, Brent S. Vallance, and Louise M. Burke
, including the 2018 Commonwealth Games (race 1; 20 km) and 3 IAAF-sanctioned 10-km events (races 2–4). All athletes completed race 3, and a subsample completed race 1 (n = 2), race 2 (n = 2), and race 4 (n = 11). Race 1 was performed on a road surface, and races 2 to 4 were performed on an IAAF
Emmanouil Georgiadis and Irini Papazoglou
World Anti-Doping Association (WADA) is responsible for doping-free sporting contests and is the only sporting body posing relevant competition sanctions. While doping relates to various controversial attitudes and beliefs proposed in the past, the confirmation of a competition ban following a doping violation has many negative connotations for the lives of the athletes. This can elicit multiple significant and far-reaching implications for them and their close ones. Aiming to better understand these implications in an athlete’s life, 5 Greek male and female athletes having recently received a competition ban after a doping violation were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of the data showed that many important psychological, social, and financial implications follow such a sanction. Most importantly, these consequences may even contribute to indications of poor mental and physical health. Discussion of the results provides suggestions for the alleviation of the negative consequences following an involuntary sporting career pause or termination.
Vern Baxter, Anthony V. Margavio, and Charles Lambert
This article uses data on sanctions against member schools of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) from 1952 to 1990 to examine density of competition and legitimacy of rules as regulatory dynamics in a relatively stable population of organizations. The NCAA regulates athletic competition through enforcement of rules that mediate between various definitions of legitimate conduct. Schools in less densely competitive environments are more likely to receive penalties for rules violations than are schools in more densely competitive environments. It is also found that NCAA Division I schools in the South, Southwest, and Midwest are significantly more likely to receive penalties than are schools in the Mideast and East. The article concludes that the legitimacy of rules varies across schools and across regions, creating different cultures of competition that affect the likelihood of deviance and sanction.
Ronald B. Mitchell, Todd Crosset, and Carol A. Barr
Popular and academic discourse typically analyze the strategies used to induce compliance with sport association policies and rules within a framework that shoehorns a diverse array of strategies into two categories: sanctions or compensation, This article proposes a taxonomy that goes beyond the “logic of consequences” inherent in the behavioral models of sanctions and compensation. Sport managers and scholars can encourage compliance through six ideal-type strategies: punitive, remunerative, generative, preventive, cognitive, and normative. These six categories provide the foundation for systematically evaluating the relative effectiveness of different strategies at altering the behavior of league members. This article delineates the different paths by which these different policy strategies influence behavior. Five questions designed to guide managers in the selection of strategies are offered. Although the National Collegiate Athletic Association is used as a case example throughout, the framework has applicability to all sport associations.