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Sarcopenia Defined by Combining Height- and Weight-Adjusted Skeletal Muscle Indices is Closely Associated With Poor Physical Performance

Nai-Hsin Meng, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Chin-Kai Chang, Tsai-Chung Li, and Cheng-Chieh Lin


To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions.


A population-based cross-sectional study.


857 community residents aged 65 years or older.


Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured.


Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests.


Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.

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Factors Associated With Skeletal Muscle Mass Increase by Rehabilitation in Older Adults With Vertebral Compression Fractures

Takahiro Ogawa, Yuki Sueyoshi, Shintaro Taketomi, and Nobumasa Chijiiwa

Age-related sarcopenia and osteoporosis-related fractures are critical health issues among older adults. In general, many older adults suffer from fractures and spend much time in bed rest, inducing decreased skeletal muscle mass and function deterioration, such as in activities of daily living

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Effect of the GERAS DANcing for Cognition and Exercise Program on Physical Function in Older Adults

Courtney C. Kennedy, Patricia Hewston, George Ioannidis, Bonaventure Egbujie, Sharon Marr, Ahmed Negm, Justin Lee, Genevieve Hladysh, Richard Sztramko, Tricia Woo, Brian Misiaszek, Christopher Patterson, and Alexandra Papaioannou

 al., 2013 ; Fried et al., 2021 ). Hallmark signs and symptoms of physical frailty include reduced strength, endurance, walking speed, weight, and physical activity (“frailty phenotype”; Fried et al., 2001 ). Sarcopenia—a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function ( Bauer et

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Relationship of Functional Outcome With Sarcopenia and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Patients With Stroke Undergoing Rehabilitation

Masashi Kanai, Masafumi Nozoe, Takuro Ohtsubo, Iori Yasumoto, and Katsuhiro Ueno

Sarcopenia is a disease characterized by decreased muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical function ( Chen et al., 2020 ; Cruz-Jentoft & Sayer, 2019 ). Sarcopenia is a predictor of poor outcome in older adults with cardiovascular disease because of its potential impact on patient mobility and

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Evidence on Physical Activity and the Prevention of Frailty and Sarcopenia Among Older People: A Systematic Review to Inform the World Health Organization Physical Activity Guidelines

Juliana S. Oliveira, Marina B. Pinheiro, Nicola Fairhall, Sarah Walsh, Tristan Chesterfield Franks, Wing Kwok, Adrian Bauman, and Catherine Sherrington

Frailty and sarcopenia are common age-related conditions associated with adverse outcomes, such as falls, mobility disorders, the need for long-term care, and death. 1 , 2 There is ongoing debate about how to best define frailty 3 and sarcopenia. 4 Frailty is characterized by a decline in

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The Association of Sitting Time With Sarcopenia Status and Physical Performance at Baseline and 18-Month Follow-Up in the Residential Aged Care Setting

Natasha Reid, Justin W. Keogh, Paul Swinton, Paul A. Gardiner, and Timothy R. Henwood

Older adults living in residential aged care (RAC; also referred to as nursing homes) are a growing segment of the population ( de Souto Barreto, 2015 ). A key challenge in the RAC setting is the prevalence of sarcopenia ( Landi et al., 2013 ; Senior, Henwood, Beller, Mitchell, & Keogh, 2015 ) and

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Determination of Body Composition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults With and Without Sarcopenia Using Data From Practical Measures

Sugalya Amatachaya, Pakwipa Chokphukiao, Puttipong Poncumhak, Roongnapa Intaruk, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, and Pipatana Amatachaya

Body composition changes such as decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), lean body mass (LBM), and bone mineral content (BMC), with increased body fat mass (FM), frequently predispose older adults to sarcopenia, frailty, loss of independence, falls, fractures, and hospitalization

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Effect of Home-Based Exercise Program on Physical Function and Balance in Older Adults With Sarcopenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study

Ekin Ilke Sen, Sibel Eyigor, Merve Dikici Yagli, Zeynep Alev Ozcete, Tugba Aydin, Fatma Nur Kesiktas, Filiz Yildiz Aydin, Meltem Vural, Nilay Sahin, and Ayse Karan

may ultimately cause impaired muscle performance leading to reduced functional capacity in relation to everyday activities, such as walking, rising from a chair, or climbing stairs ( Zembroń-Łacny, Dziubek, Rogowski, Skorupka, & Dąbrowska, 2014 ). Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial syndrome

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Combined Protein-Rich Diet With Resistance Exercise Intervention to Counteract Sarcopenia: A Qualitative Study on Drivers and Barriers of Compliance

Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla, and Martijn Veltkamp

Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, defined as sarcopenia ( Visser et al., 2002 ). Currently, the prevalence of sarcopenia is between 5–10% of people aged over 65 ( von Haehling, Morley, & Anker, 2010 ). Sarcopenia could lead to a downward spiral of further functional

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Effects of Resistance Training of Peripheral Muscles Versus Respiratory Muscles in Older Adults With Sarcopenia Who are Institutionalized: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá, and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

The presence of comorbidity and other factors such as physical inactivity in older people favor the onset of sarcopenia ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010 ). The prevalence of this geriatric syndrome in older adults who are institutionalized is around 14–33% in Europe ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2014 ), and