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Nai-Hsin Meng, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Chin-Kai Chang, Tsai-Chung Li and Cheng-Chieh Lin

Objectives:

To compare muscle strength and physical performance among subjects with and without sarcopenia of different definitions.

Design:

A population-based cross-sectional study.

Participants:

857 community residents aged 65 years or older.

Methods:

Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People consensus criteria. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean soft tissue mass. Sarcopenic participants with low height-adjusted or weight-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI) were classified as having h-sarcopenia or w-sarcopenia, respectively. Combined sarcopenia (c-sarcopenia) was defined as having either h- or w-sarcopenia. The participants underwent six physical performance tests: walking speed, timed up-and-go, six-minute walk, single-leg stance, timed chair stands, and flexibility test. The strength of five muscle groups was measured.

Results:

Participants with h-sarcopenia had lower weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and absolute muscle strength (p ≤ .001); those with w-sarcopenia had higher weight, BMI, fat mass (p < .001), and low relative muscle strength (p ≤ .003). Participants with c-sarcopenia had poorer performance in all physical performance tests, whereas h-sarcopenia and w-sarcopenia were associated with poor performance in four tests.

Conclusion:

Subjects with h- and w-sarcopenia differ significantly in terms of obesity indicators. Combining height- and weight-adjusted SMIs can be a feasible method to define sarcopenia.

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Natasha Reid, Justin W. Keogh, Paul Swinton, Paul A. Gardiner and Timothy R. Henwood

Older adults living in residential aged care (RAC; also referred to as nursing homes) are a growing segment of the population ( de Souto Barreto, 2015 ). A key challenge in the RAC setting is the prevalence of sarcopenia ( Landi et al., 2013 ; Senior, Henwood, Beller, Mitchell, & Keogh, 2015 ) and

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Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla and Martijn Veltkamp

Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, defined as sarcopenia ( Visser et al., 2002 ). Currently, the prevalence of sarcopenia is between 5–10% of people aged over 65 ( von Haehling, Morley, & Anker, 2010 ). Sarcopenia could lead to a downward spiral of further functional

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

The presence of comorbidity and other factors such as physical inactivity in older people favor the onset of sarcopenia ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010 ). The prevalence of this geriatric syndrome in older adults who are institutionalized is around 14–33% in Europe ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2014 ), and

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Herculina S. Kruger, Lize Havemann-Nel, Chrisna Ravyse, Sarah J. Moss and Michael Tieland

Background:

Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women.

Methods:

In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) < 4.94 kg/m2.

Results:

In total, 8.9% of the women were sarcopenic, decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = –.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = –.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength.

Conclusions:

Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

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Edward Archer, Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook and Steven N. Blair

Successful aging encompasses more than just the prevention of disease and disability; the truly well-lived life is demonstrated by a sense of vitality and independence, freedom from bodily pain, and the continued involvement in meaningful activities. While physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors accelerate the aging process, deliberate exercise and other forms of activity delay and/or prevent the onset of age-related pathologies such as frailty, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and cardiovascular disease. This review surveys the evidence that supports the position that physical activity is a necessary component for the development and maintenance of the physiological resources that are foundational to physical and cognitive functioning and ‘living well’ in one's later years.

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

Resistance training is a known countermeasure to the development of sarcopenia, or loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging ( Zembroń-Łacny, Dziubek, Rogowski, Skorupka, & Dąbrowska, 2014 ). However, the optimal intensity/volume condition for older adults is still unknown. The

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Junga Lee

Sarcopenia is an age-associated loss of muscle mass and function ( Kamel, 2003 ). After reaching 30 years of age, individuals start to lose as much as 4% of their muscle mass each decade, with older adults exhibiting 30% less muscle mass than they had in their 30s ( Frischknecht, 1998 ). Lower

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Nobuo Takeshima, Keizo Shimada, Mohammod M. Islam, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yoshie Ishida and William F. Brechue

To clarify the progression of muscle loss in nursing home residents, frail women (n = 16; age: 85 ± 9 years; residence time: 764 days) were assessed for physical activity, caloric intake, and site-specific muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) using B-mode ultrasound at nine anatomical sites at four intervals over one year. Height, body weight, and BMI did not change. Physical activity (246 steps/day) and nutritional intake (1,441 kcal, 60.3 g protein/day) were unaltered throughout the study. Subjects experienced a significant, progressive loss of muscle indicated by decrements in anterior upper arm (20%), posterior upper arm (25%), abdomen (20%), subscapular (33%), anterior thigh (15%), posterior thigh (22%), anterior lower leg (11%), posterior lower leg (13%), and forearm (15%) MTH. At study inception, prevalence of sarcopenia was related to muscle loss in the upper leg, while upper body muscle wasting contributed to sarcopenia later and was unrelated to physical activity, nutritional input, or duration of residence.

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

 al., 2000 ). One such consequence is sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function, which is a growing health concern for older adults ( Janssen, Shepard, Katzmarzyk, & Roubenoff, 2004 ; Manton & Vaupel, 1995 ). Loss of muscle mass ( Janssen, 2010 ) and strength ( Mitchell et al., 2012