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Wagner L. Prado, P. Babu Balagopal, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Lila M. Oyama, Thiago Ricardo S., João Paulo Botero and James O. Hill

Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13–18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY3–36 (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3–36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

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Julie Masurier, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Stephanie Nicole Fearnbach, Charlotte Cardenoux, Valérie Julian, Céline Lambert, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie and David Thivel

feelings area under the curve (hunger, satiety, prospective food consumption, and desire to eat). When appropriate (omnibus p  < .05), post hoc tests for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni) were applied. Finally, correlations were performed between the participants’ perceived exertion, FM percentage, FFM

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Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Vicky Drapeau, David Thivel and Marie-Eve Mathieu

 al. ( 2019 ) have shown that men and women with overweight or obesity who exercised in the morning lost almost twice as much weight as the ones who exercised in the evening. Furthermore, increased satiety was observed following the moderate-intensity morning exercise session compared with a similar exercise

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Bjoern Geesmann, Joachim Mester and Karsten Koehler

Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Paula Skidmore and Rachel Clare Brown

Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and postrace. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety.

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Mandy Clark, Debra B. Reed, Stephen F. Crouse and Robert B. Armstrong

Little published data describe the dietary and physiological profiles of intercollegiate female soccer players; therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to report baseline dietary data, anthropometrics, and performance indices of soccer women during rigorous pre-season training (2 sessions/day) and then during the post-competitive season. Members of a NCAA Division I women’s soccer squad completed 3-day diet records, anthropometrics, and physical tests, including VO2peak. Average body mass was 62 kg with 16% body fat, and no significant pre to post differences were observed. Total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), protein, and fat intakes were significantly greater during the pre-sea-son. Pre-season energy intake met the DRI for females with an “active” lifestyle (37 kcal/kg). While CHO intake failed to meet minimum recommendations to promote glycogen repletion (7–10 g/kg), protein and fat intakes were above minimum recommendations. Pre- and post-season intakes of several micronu-trients were marginal (<75% of the DRI) including vitamin E, folate, copper, and magnesium. VO2peak significantly improved from pre- to post-season (42 and 50 ml/kg/min). In this study female soccer players appeared to meet caloric needs during periods of training but failed to meet minimum CHO and micronu-trient recommendations. Foods higher in protein and fat displaced more CHOrich and nutrient-dense foods within athletes’ energy requirements and satiety limits.

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Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F. Rehfeld, Linda Morgan and Catia Martins

achieved), while also improving meal-induced satiety ( King et al., 2009 ). We have previously reported that the improvements in postprandial satiety, observed after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise, coincided with a significant increase in the postmeal suppression of ghrelin and a tendency toward increased

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

blood glucose levels, and a high-fiber diet can also produce an increased satiety level that may aid in weight loss over time by reducing hunger, ultimately decreasing caloric intake ( Clark & Slavin, 2013 ). Only 63% of all the individuals in this study met the current recommendations for fiber intake

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

competition ( Campbell et al., 2007 ). A high intake of dietary protein is associated with increased satiety; therefore, the players in the current study may not have possessed the appetite to consume the necessary carbohydrate on the day before competition ( Halton & Hu, 2004 ). Overall, these findings are

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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

capacity and reduced satiety via the leptin–melanocortin neurotransmission pathway ( 50 ). OLFM4 , first associated with BMI in children, may modify immune activity in response to the gut microbiota load in the gastrointestinal tract ( 6 ). Taking all of this evidence together, we speculate that genes