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Jan Gajdošík, Jirˇí Baláš, Dominika Krupková, Lukáš Psohlavec, and Nick Draper

difficulty) of the 3 trials was selected to induce a physiological steady state or plateau in systemic variables such as oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) and heart rate (HR) and local muscle oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) during each 4 minutes of exercise. The typical responses for all speeds are depicted in Figure  1

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Scott Cheatham, Morey J. Kolber, and Michael P. Ernst


Pulse oximetry has become mobile with the use of smartphone and Bluetooth wireless technology. This technology offers many benefits but has not been extensively studied. There is a need to further validate its clinimetric properties for health professionals to provide proper guidance to patients.


This investigation assessed the concurrent validity of the iSpO2 pulse oximeter against a traditional pulse oximeter in measuring short-term resting blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate.


Observational study of reliability.


University kinesiology laboratory.


Thirty healthy, recre-ationally active adults (18 men, 12 women; mean age = 25.7 ± 5.46 years, mean height = 170.3cm ± 9.51, mean body mass = 76.4 kg ± 19.33).


Resting measurement of SpO2 and pulse rate using the iSpO2 pulse oximeter with the iPad Mini and a traditional pulse oximeter with Bluetooth.

Main Outcome Measure:

Resting SpO2 and pulse rate were concurrently measured over 5 min.


The concurrent validity between the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeter was moderate for measuring SpO2, intraclass correlation coeffcient (ICC)(3, 1) = .73, SEM = 0.70%, and good for pulse rate, ICC(3, 1) = .97, SEM = 1.74 beats per minute (bpm). The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval for both instruments suggests that there may be 1.94% disagreement for SpO2 and 4.82 bpm disagreement between pulse oximetry methods. The 95% limits of agreement (LoA) for measuring SpO2 suggests that the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeters may vary -0.28 ± 1.98%, or approximately 2%. The 95% LoA for measuring pulse rate suggests that the iSpO2 and traditional pulse oximeter may vary 1.74 ± 4.98 bpm, potentially upward of 6 bpm. On the basis of the results of the LoA, it appears that there may be a slight systematic bias between the two devices, with the traditional pulse oximeter producing higher pulse rates than the iSpO2.


The findings suggest that both instruments may be beneficial for indirect short-term measurements of resting SpO2 and pulse rate.

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Laurent Trincat, Xavier Woorons, and Grégoire P. Millet


Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) has been shown as an efficient method for improving repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in team-sport players but has not been investigated in swimming. We assessed whether RSH with arterial desaturation induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL) could improve RSA to a greater extent than the same training performed under normal breathing (NB) conditions.


Sixteen competitive swimmers completed 6 sessions of repeated sprints (2 sets of 16 × 15 m with 30 s send-off) either with VHL (RSH-VHL, n = 8) or with NB (RSN, n = 8). Before and after training, performance was evaluated through an RSA test (25-m all-out sprints with 35 s send-off) until exhaustion.


From before to after training, the number of sprints was significantly increased in RSH-VHL (7.1 ± 2.1 vs 9.6 ± 2.5; P < .01) but not in RSN (8.0 ± 3.1 vs 8.7 ± 3.7; P = .38). Maximal blood lactate concentration ([La]max) was higher after than before in RSH-VHL (11.5 ± 3.9 vs 7.9 ± 3.7 mmol/L; P = .04) but was unchanged in RSN (10.2 ± 2.0 vs 9.0 ± 3.5 mmol/L; P = .34). There was a strong correlation between the increases in the number of sprints and in [La]max in RSH-VHL only (R = .93, P < .01).


RSH-VHL improved RSA in swimming, probably through enhanced anaerobic glycolysis. This innovative method allows inducing benefits normally associated with hypoxia during swim training in normoxia.

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

saturation (SpO 2 ) and disrupting homeostasis. 11 Anecdotal reports indicate that this method is now used with a view to increasing the aerobic training stimulus when exercising with BWS in rehabilitation settings (eg, with professional football players). The rationale for this approach is that due to the

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Ade B. Pratama and Tossaporn Yimlamai

and hemodynamic in sport, health, and clinical settings. 5 – 7 NIRS provides information on the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin (O 2 Hb), deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin (HHb), tissue saturation index (TSI), and hemodynamics of total hemoglobin (tHb) on peripheral muscle

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Brian Killinger, Jakob D. Lauver, Luke Donovan, and John Goetschius

rehabilitation is to establish whether these acute responses can be induced within the lower-leg muscles of CAI patients. Therefore, the primary purposes of this study were to examine the effects of BFR on muscle activation and oxygen saturation during submaximal eversion and dorsiflexion resistance exercises in

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Naoya Takei, Katsuyuki Kakinoki, Olivier Girard, and Hideo Hatta

decrement score were determined. 11 Arterial oxygen saturation was measured by pulse oximetry (BO-750BT; NISSEI, Tokyo, Japan) from fingertip 1 min before the first Wingate effort. A capillary blood sample taken from fingertip was analyzed for BLa with the Lactate Pro 2 (ARKRAY, Kyoto, Japan) portable

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Myles C. Dennis, Paul S.R. Goods, Martyn J. Binnie, Olivier Girard, Karen E. Wallman, Brian T. Dawson, and Peter Peeling

quantification of how the addition of different heat loads to a typical RSH session influences both external (ie, mechanical power output) and internal (ie, heart rate [HR] and pulse oxygen saturation [S p O 2 ]) measures of load is required. Understanding these effects will provide context for appropriate

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Manuel Matzka, Christoph Zinner, Philipp Kunz, Hans-Christer Holmberg, and Billy Sperlich

the sensor for each subsequent trial. The tissue saturation index (TSI, calculated as [HbO 2 ]/([HbO 2 ] +[HHb]) × 100 and expressed as percentage), which reflects muscle oxygenation more accurately than (HHb), 22 indicated the balance between oxygen supply and consumption. In addition, heart rate

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Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, Georgios Gioftsos, Georgios Georgoudis, and Maria Papandreou

physiotherapist’s exercise plan? If yes, what were the reasons for not adhering to the exercise plan either at home or at his/her practice? 4. What factors do you think increased your adherence to the exercise plan and why? Is there anything else that you would like to add about your experience? Saturation