winter sports. Related to the legitimization of elite sport investment, the Flemish elite sport policy makes it explicit that the aim is to generate positive societal impacts. 3 Scale Development Scale construction began by developing measurement items based on the 79 subcategories from the theoretical
Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou
Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox
Purpose: This article outlines the development and validation of the Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale (NIBS). Drawing from self-determination theory, the NIBS is the first observation tool designed to code the frequency and the intensity of autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness-relevant behaviors of exercise instructors. The scale also captures the frequency of need-indifferent behaviors. Methods: The behaviors of 27 exercise instructors were coded by trained raters on two occasions, before and after they received training in adaptive motivational communication. Results: Findings supported the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The scale’s sensitivity to detect changes in frequency and intensity of need-relevant behaviors was also evidenced. Conclusions: The NIBS is a new tool that offers a unique, tripartite assessment of need-relevant behaviors of leaders in the physical activity domain.
Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle
.K. Tingle, and P. Kellett, 2013, Journal of Sport Management, 27 , p. 320. Copyright 2013 by the Human Kinetics Inc. Methods and Results A survey instrument to measure referee retention was developed using the scale development guidelines suggested by Devellis ( 2012 ). These guidelines include the
Xiaofen Deng Keating and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS) produces reliable and valid scores. There were 4 stages and 4 sets of participants in the development of the PETAFTS. First, the domains of attitude were defined and cognitive and affective components were developed, organized, and validated. In the second stage, 134 full-time physical education teachers participated in a pilot study and PETAFTS was revised based on the information obtained. In the third stage, 28 teacher educators served on an expert panel and organized the items into domain areas. In the final stage, 322 physical education teachers from 10 states tested the revised PETAFTS. Based on the results, the PETAFTS was shortened by deleting and combining some of the items in subdomains; this resulted in a 16-item final version that, according to the indices, generates reliable and valid scores.
Cheryl B. Anderson
One’s athletic identity, developed and maintained by others as well as the self, is likely important in sustaining long-term physical activity over many years. The 21-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) is presented as a multidimensional measure of the components of athletic identity that reflects an attribute all people possess to varying degrees and encompasses exercise, sports, and physical activity. Confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of young adults (n = 446 and 485) supported a first-order model of four correlated factors: athletic appearance; importance of exercise/ sports/ physical activity; competence; and encouragement from others. A latent factor of physical activity with two indicators—stage of exercise behavior and exercise frequency per week—correlated significantly with the four athletic identity factors in both samples (r = 0.57–0.89 in Sample 1, r = 0.56–0.90 in Sample 2), and this 5-factor measurement model also represented an adequate fit. Results provide support for the reliability and validity of the AIQ.
Kathleen A. Martin, W. Jack Rejeski, Mark R. Leary, Edward McAuley and Susan Bane
Recent research has suggested that the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional measure. The present study challenged this position on both conceptual and empirical grounds. After deleting three questionable items from the SPAS, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were conducted across four samples of women who had completed the scale. Across all samples, the model fit indices (i.e., all > .90) suggested that a nine-item, single factor model of the SPAS is more parsimonious and conceptually clear than a two-factor model. It is recommended that researchers of social physique anxiety begin to use the nine-item version of the SPAS described in this paper.
Cheryl B. Anderson and Karen J. Coleman
This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses exercise, sport, and physical activity and assesses 4 dimensions: appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from 3 sources (parents, friends, teachers/other adults).
The hypothesized 4-factor model was tested using structural equation modeling in 2 samples of 9- and 10-year-old children that were ethnically diverse (N = 432) and Hispanic (N = 504).
Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 8.71 supported the 4-factor structure in a 40- or 38-item version in sample 1 (RMSEA = .039, .041) and sample 2 (RMSEA = .038, .038). As in the adult and adolescent models, there was also support for a higher-order model. The AIQ-Child factors were positively related to physical activity (r = .51 to .68) and fitness (r = .15 to .41) and negatively related to TV/computer use (r = –.28 to –.03) and adiposity (r = –.32 to .04).
Findings support the factorial and construct validity of the AIQ-Child and its use as a self-report instrument in younger children.
This study examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance across gender of the 9-item and two 7-item previously supported unidimensional factor models of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) in two samples of Swedish male and female university students. Results demonstrated that the Motl and Conroy (2000) 7-item model made the closest ft to data in both the male and female samples. None of the two 7-item models demonstrated invariant factor variances or item uniqueness across gender. Moreover, the factor loadings were not invariant in the Motl and Conroy models. Gender differences in SPAS factor structure, linked to cultural variations in measurement equivalence and future development of gender specific scales, are discussed.
Harry Prapavessis, Ralph Maddison and Richard Fletcher
The purpose of the present study was to provide further evidence for the factor structure and composition of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) using a sample of competitive male rugby players (N = 570). Three models were tested using both confirmatory factor analytic and polyto-mous item-response theory procedures: Smith et al’s original model; Dunn et al.’s (2000) alternative model in which Items 14 and 20 were originally designed to measure Concentration Disruption load on the Worry factor (Model A); and Model B (the removal of Item 1). Results showed that Models A and B provided similar fits to the data. Overall these findings argue for the utilization of Model B to improve model fit and maintain conceptual clarity. Our findings suggest that the factor structure and composition of the SAS needs further examination and possible refinement before researchers can feel more confident about the effectiveness of the instrument’s psychometric properties.
Nikos Ntoumanis and Spiridoula Vazou
The influence of the peer group on young people’s achievement motivation has been highlighted in the literature as an area that needs examination (e.g., Harwood & Swain, 2001). To this effect, a new measure of youngsters’ perceptions of the peer motivational climate (Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire; PeerMCYSQ) was developed and tested across three studies. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with 431 athletes between the ages of 11 to 16 years suggested that the PeerMCYSQ had 6 factors that could also be subsumed into 2 higher order factors (Task-Involving climate: improvement, relatedness support, effort; Ego-Involving climate: intra-team competition, normative ability, intra-team conflict). In Studies 2 and 3 the 6-factor solution and the corresponding hierarchical one were tested using CFA with two independent samples (N = 606 and 495, respectively) of similar age. The results showed that the 6-factor model was problematic and that a 5-factor solution should be preferred instead. Further support to the 5-factor model was provided with hierarchical and multilevel CFAs. Suggestions for further research on peer motivational climate are discussed.