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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park, and Martin Block

The purpose of this study was to address contact theory as the theoretical basis of the Paralympic School Day (PSD) disability awareness program using a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory), seeking to control and explain the manner in which PSD satisfied the four components of contact theory. Participants were 145 sixth-grade students who took part in PSD. Results determined that the PSD intervention supported the four theoretical components of contact theory, with statistically significant differences in student responses across all four indicators (p < .001). In addition, results determined that the fidelity criteria had strong test–retest reliability with internal consistency that was strong across time points (r = .829; p < .001). Results also determined that the four indicators of the instrument measured a single construct (one indicator significant at the p ≤ .01 level and three indicators significant at the p ≤ .001 level), thus, determining strong construct validity.

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

by Dunn, Bouffard, and Rogers ( 1999 ) regarding item-content relevance in sport psychology scale construction. The total of six raters met the recommendation of Lynn ( 1986 ) that a minimum of five raters be included in item development. Five of the six raters had previous experience with item and

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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi, and Popi Sotiriadou

winter sports. Related to the legitimization of elite sport investment, the Flemish elite sport policy makes it explicit that the aim is to generate positive societal impacts. 3 Scale Development Scale construction began by developing measurement items based on the 79 subcategories from the theoretical

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Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, and Maike Tietjens

locomotion: running, hopping, standing broad jump, leaping, sliding, and galloping). Based on the validation results ( Barnett et al., 2016 ) the four skills of each scale (i.e., locomotion and object control) that were known by most of the kids (cf. Barnett et al., 2016 , p. 299) were taken for scale

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

, A.L. , Kirk , S.B. , Cameron , C.L. , & Danoff-Burg , S. ( 2000 ). Coping through emotional approach: Scale construction and validation . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 , 1150 – 1169 . PubMed doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.78.6.1150 10.1037/0022-3514.78.6.1150 Williams , J

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Kate Hovey, Diana Niland, and John T. Foley

sport psychology scale-construction research: Issues and recommendations . Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 3, 15 – 36 . doi:10.1207/s15327841mpee0301_2 10.1207/s15327841mpee0301_2 Fahlman , M.M. , Hall , H.L. , & Gutuskey , L. ( 2013 ). The impact of a health methods

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Umut Doğan

developing psychological resilience for sustained success . Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 7 ( 3 ), 135 – 157 . https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2016.1255496 Furr , R. ( 2011 ). Scale construction and psychometrics for social and personality psychology . SAGE Publications Ltd . Gonzalez , S

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Umut Doğan

, 7 ( 3 ), 135 – 157 . 10.1080/21520704.2016.1255496 10.1080/21520704.2016.1255496 Furr , R. ( 2011 ). Scale construction and psychometrics for social and personality psychology . SAGE Publications Ltd . 10.4135/9781446287866 Gillham , B. ( 2008 ). Developing a questionnaire ( 2nd ed

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Alex J. Benson and Mark Eys

. , & Rogers , W.T. ( 1999 ). Assessing item content-relevance in sport psychology scale-construction research: Issues and recommendations . Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 3 , 15 – 36 . doi: 10.1207/s15327841mpee0301_2 10.1207/s15327841mpee0301_2 Ellis , A.M. , Bauer , T

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Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

overcoming barriers to be active ( Frei, Svarin, Steuer-Stey, & Puhan, 2009 ). However, even using the self-efficacy-scale construction guidelines ( Bandura, 2006b ), there is substantially more flexibility in measurement than with other motivational constructs, likely leading to more variability in BSE