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Team Representation: Scale Development and Validation

Akira Asada and Katherine R.N. Reifurth

 al., 2016 ; Delia & James, 2018 ). Therefore, sports teams’ representations in their local communities play critical roles for attracting both local and nonlocal fans. Study Overview The current study was guided by MacKenzie et al.’s ( 2011 ) framework of scale development and validation. We used this

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Public Perceptions of the Societal Impact of Elite Sport: Scale Development and Testing

Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi, and Popi Sotiriadou

winter sports. Related to the legitimization of elite sport investment, the Flemish elite sport policy makes it explicit that the aim is to generate positive societal impacts. 3 Scale Development Scale construction began by developing measurement items based on the 79 subcategories from the theoretical

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Fan Engagement Behavior: Validation of a Theory-Based Scale

Masayuki Yoshida, Rui Biscaia, Sebastian Uhrich, Brian S. Gordon, Marcel Huettermann, and Makoto Nakazawa

’s ( 1998 ) deductive scale development process and includes two studies using multiple samples in the context of professional sport. Reconceptualizing Fan Engagement Behavior Conceptual Background Fan engagement behavior is an extended form of customer engagement behavior in the sport context ( Yoshida et

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Development of the Referee Retention Scale

Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner, and Jacob K. Tingle

.K. Tingle, and P. Kellett, 2013, Journal of Sport Management, 27 , p. 320. Copyright 2013 by the Human Kinetics Inc. Methods and Results A survey instrument to measure referee retention was developed using the scale development guidelines suggested by Devellis ( 2012 ). These guidelines include the

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The Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale: Development and Initial Validation

Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani, and Jennie E. Hancox

Purpose: This article outlines the development and validation of the Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale (NIBS). Drawing from self-determination theory, the NIBS is the first observation tool designed to code the frequency and the intensity of autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness-relevant behaviors of exercise instructors. The scale also captures the frequency of need-indifferent behaviors. Methods: The behaviors of 27 exercise instructors were coded by trained raters on two occasions, before and after they received training in adaptive motivational communication. Results: Findings supported the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The scale’s sensitivity to detect changes in frequency and intensity of need-relevant behaviors was also evidenced. Conclusions: The NIBS is a new tool that offers a unique, tripartite assessment of need-relevant behaviors of leaders in the physical activity domain.

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Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Test Scale: Development and Validation

Xiaofen Deng Keating and Stephen Silverman

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS) produces reliable and valid scores. There were 4 stages and 4 sets of participants in the development of the PETAFTS. First, the domains of attitude were defined and cognitive and affective components were developed, organized, and validated. In the second stage, 134 full-time physical education teachers participated in a pilot study and PETAFTS was revised based on the information obtained. In the third stage, 28 teacher educators served on an expert panel and organized the items into domain areas. In the final stage, 322 physical education teachers from 10 states tested the revised PETAFTS. Based on the results, the PETAFTS was shortened by deleting and combining some of the items in subdomains; this resulted in a 16-item final version that, according to the indices, generates reliable and valid scores.

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Athletic Identity and Its Relation to Exercise Behavior: Scale Development and Initial Validation

Cheryl B. Anderson

One’s athletic identity, developed and maintained by others as well as the self, is likely important in sustaining long-term physical activity over many years. The 21-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) is presented as a multidimensional measure of the components of athletic identity that reflects an attribute all people possess to varying degrees and encompasses exercise, sports, and physical activity. Confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of young adults (n = 446 and 485) supported a first-order model of four correlated factors: athletic appearance; importance of exercise/ sports/ physical activity; competence; and encouragement from others. A latent factor of physical activity with two indicators—stage of exercise behavior and exercise frequency per week—correlated significantly with the four athletic identity factors in both samples (r = 0.57–0.89 in Sample 1, r = 0.56–0.90 in Sample 2), and this 5-factor measurement model also represented an adequate fit. Results provide support for the reliability and validity of the AIQ.

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Is the Social Physique Anxiety Scale Really Multidimensional? Conceptual and Statistical Arguments for a Unidimensional Model

Kathleen A. Martin, W. Jack Rejeski, Mark R. Leary, Edward McAuley, and Susan Bane

Recent research has suggested that the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional measure. The present study challenged this position on both conceptual and empirical grounds. After deleting three questionable items from the SPAS, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were conducted across four samples of women who had completed the scale. Across all samples, the model fit indices (i.e., all > .90) suggested that a nine-item, single factor model of the SPAS is more parsimonious and conceptually clear than a two-factor model. It is recommended that researchers of social physique anxiety begin to use the nine-item version of the SPAS described in this paper.

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Adaptation and Validation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire-Adolescent for Use With Children

Cheryl B. Anderson and Karen J. Coleman

Background:

This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses exercise, sport, and physical activity and assesses 4 dimensions: appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from 3 sources (parents, friends, teachers/other adults).

Methods:

The hypothesized 4-factor model was tested using structural equation modeling in 2 samples of 9- and 10-year-old children that were ethnically diverse (N = 432) and Hispanic (N = 504).

Results:

Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 8.71 supported the 4-factor structure in a 40- or 38-item version in sample 1 (RMSEA = .039, .041) and sample 2 (RMSEA = .038, .038). As in the adult and adolescent models, there was also support for a higher-order model. The AIQ-Child factors were positively related to physical activity (r = .51 to .68) and fitness (r = .15 to .41) and negatively related to TV/computer use (r = –.28 to –.03) and adiposity (r = –.32 to .04).

Conclusions:

Findings support the factorial and construct validity of the AIQ-Child and its use as a self-report instrument in younger children.

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Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire

Sarah E. Williams and Jennifer Cumming

This research aimed to develop and provide initial validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ). The SIAQ assesses athletes’ ease of imaging different types of imagery content. Following an extensive pilot study, 375 athletes completed a 20-item SIAQ in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor model assessing skill, strategy, goal, and affect imagery ability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established this 4-factor structure in Study 2 (N = 363 athletes). In Study 3 (N = 438 athletes), additional items were added to create a fifth mastery imagery subscale that was confirmed through CFA. Study 4 (N = 220 athletes) compared the SIAQ to the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3. Significant bivariate correlations (p < .05) confirmed the SIAQ’s concurrent validity but demonstrated differences in imagery ability of different content. Overall, the SIAQ demonstrates good factorial validity, internal and temporal reliability, invariance across gender, and an ability to distinguish among athletes of different competitive levels. Findings highlight the importance of separately assessing imagery ability of different content.