winter sports. Related to the legitimization of elite sport investment, the Flemish elite sport policy makes it explicit that the aim is to generate positive societal impacts. 3 Scale Development Scale construction began by developing measurement items based on the 79 subcategories from the theoretical
Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi, and Popi Sotiriadou
Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner, and Jacob K. Tingle
.K. Tingle, and P. Kellett, 2013, Journal of Sport Management, 27 , p. 320. Copyright 2013 by the Human Kinetics Inc. Methods and Results A survey instrument to measure referee retention was developed using the scale development guidelines suggested by Devellis ( 2012 ). These guidelines include the
Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani, and Jennie E. Hancox
Purpose: This article outlines the development and validation of the Need-Relevant Instructor Behaviors Scale (NIBS). Drawing from self-determination theory, the NIBS is the first observation tool designed to code the frequency and the intensity of autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness-relevant behaviors of exercise instructors. The scale also captures the frequency of need-indifferent behaviors. Methods: The behaviors of 27 exercise instructors were coded by trained raters on two occasions, before and after they received training in adaptive motivational communication. Results: Findings supported the structural validity and reliability of the scale. The scale’s sensitivity to detect changes in frequency and intensity of need-relevant behaviors was also evidenced. Conclusions: The NIBS is a new tool that offers a unique, tripartite assessment of need-relevant behaviors of leaders in the physical activity domain.
Cheryl B. Anderson
One’s athletic identity, developed and maintained by others as well as the self, is likely important in sustaining long-term physical activity over many years. The 21-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) is presented as a multidimensional measure of the components of athletic identity that reflects an attribute all people possess to varying degrees and encompasses exercise, sports, and physical activity. Confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of young adults (n = 446 and 485) supported a first-order model of four correlated factors: athletic appearance; importance of exercise/ sports/ physical activity; competence; and encouragement from others. A latent factor of physical activity with two indicators—stage of exercise behavior and exercise frequency per week—correlated significantly with the four athletic identity factors in both samples (r = 0.57–0.89 in Sample 1, r = 0.56–0.90 in Sample 2), and this 5-factor measurement model also represented an adequate fit. Results provide support for the reliability and validity of the AIQ.
Xiaofen Deng Keating and Stephen Silverman
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes Toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS) produces reliable and valid scores. There were 4 stages and 4 sets of participants in the development of the PETAFTS. First, the domains of attitude were defined and cognitive and affective components were developed, organized, and validated. In the second stage, 134 full-time physical education teachers participated in a pilot study and PETAFTS was revised based on the information obtained. In the third stage, 28 teacher educators served on an expert panel and organized the items into domain areas. In the final stage, 322 physical education teachers from 10 states tested the revised PETAFTS. Based on the results, the PETAFTS was shortened by deleting and combining some of the items in subdomains; this resulted in a 16-item final version that, according to the indices, generates reliable and valid scores.
Kathleen A. Martin, W. Jack Rejeski, Mark R. Leary, Edward McAuley, and Susan Bane
Recent research has suggested that the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional measure. The present study challenged this position on both conceptual and empirical grounds. After deleting three questionable items from the SPAS, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were conducted across four samples of women who had completed the scale. Across all samples, the model fit indices (i.e., all > .90) suggested that a nine-item, single factor model of the SPAS is more parsimonious and conceptually clear than a two-factor model. It is recommended that researchers of social physique anxiety begin to use the nine-item version of the SPAS described in this paper.
This study examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance across gender of the 9-item and two 7-item previously supported unidimensional factor models of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS; Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989) in two samples of Swedish male and female university students. Results demonstrated that the Motl and Conroy (2000) 7-item model made the closest ft to data in both the male and female samples. None of the two 7-item models demonstrated invariant factor variances or item uniqueness across gender. Moreover, the factor loadings were not invariant in the Motl and Conroy models. Gender differences in SPAS factor structure, linked to cultural variations in measurement equivalence and future development of gender specific scales, are discussed.
Harry Prapavessis, Ralph Maddison, and Richard Fletcher
The purpose of the present study was to provide further evidence for the factor structure and composition of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith, Smoll, & Schutz, 1990) using a sample of competitive male rugby players (N = 570). Three models were tested using both confirmatory factor analytic and polyto-mous item-response theory procedures: Smith et al’s original model; Dunn et al.’s (2000) alternative model in which Items 14 and 20 were originally designed to measure Concentration Disruption load on the Worry factor (Model A); and Model B (the removal of Item 1). Results showed that Models A and B provided similar fits to the data. Overall these findings argue for the utilization of Model B to improve model fit and maintain conceptual clarity. Our findings suggest that the factor structure and composition of the SAS needs further examination and possible refinement before researchers can feel more confident about the effectiveness of the instrument’s psychometric properties.
Sarah E. Williams and Jennifer Cumming
This research aimed to develop and provide initial validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ). The SIAQ assesses athletes’ ease of imaging different types of imagery content. Following an extensive pilot study, 375 athletes completed a 20-item SIAQ in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor model assessing skill, strategy, goal, and affect imagery ability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established this 4-factor structure in Study 2 (N = 363 athletes). In Study 3 (N = 438 athletes), additional items were added to create a fifth mastery imagery subscale that was confirmed through CFA. Study 4 (N = 220 athletes) compared the SIAQ to the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3. Significant bivariate correlations (p < .05) confirmed the SIAQ’s concurrent validity but demonstrated differences in imagery ability of different content. Overall, the SIAQ demonstrates good factorial validity, internal and temporal reliability, invariance across gender, and an ability to distinguish among athletes of different competitive levels. Findings highlight the importance of separately assessing imagery ability of different content.
Susan A. Jackson and Herbert W. Marsh
The Flow State Scale (FSS) is a new measure of flow in sport and physical activity settings. The nine FSS scales of the 36-item instrument represent the dimensions of flow discussed by Csikszentmihalyi (1990, 1993), and each scale is measured by four items. Development of items was based on (a) past research with flow state both within and outside of sport settings, (b) qualitative analysis of interviews with elite athletes, and (c) quantitative analyses conducted in the present investigation. Internal consistency estimates for the nine FSS scales were reasonable (alpha M = 33) for administration of the scale to 394 athletes. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the nine scales. Consistent with the theoretical basis of the FSS, there was also support for a hierarchical model in which one global (higher order) flow factor explained correlations among the nine first-order FSS factors. Suggestions for use of the scale and for further research are discussed.