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Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale among Children

David Markland, Mark Emberton, and Rachel Tallon

The aims of this study were to assess the factorial and construct validity of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Coumeya, 1994) among children. Following a pilot study designed to check British children’s comprehension of the instrument, two groups of children completed a modified SEES prior to and after taking part in a game of rounders (n = 110) or a maximal exercise test (n = 121). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data after the removal of two problematic items that were identified by examining residuals and modification indices. Multisample analyses supported the generalizability of the factor structure across gender pre- and postexercise and across exercise mode. Analyses of pre- to postexercise changes in subscale scores gave some evidence for construct validity. The findings suggest that the modified SEES may be useful in examining questions concerning exercise and affect among children.

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Validation of the Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale: Testing Measurement Invariance Between Hispanic and Caucasian Children

John B. Bartholomew, Alexandra Loukas, Esbelle M. Jowers, and Shane Allua


Design and evaluation of physical activity interventions depends upon valid instruments to assess mediating processes. The Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale (PASES) has been used in a variety of forms within samples of African American and Caucasian children.


This study was designed to extend the statistical validity of the scores from the PASES by comparing 1 and 3-factor models and testing measurement invariance between Hispanic and Caucasian children. 883 fourth and fifth graders were recruited (mean age, 9.71 y; 48% female, 52% male; 67% Hispanic, 33% Caucasian). The factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis, using two-group analyses to model ethnic differences.


The 17-item, 3-factor version of the PASES evidenced poor fit with the data. In contrast, an 8-item, 1-factor solution provided adequate fit for both samples.


The 8-item, 1-factor version of the PASES provides statistically valid scores for Hispanic and Caucasian children.

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Test–Retest Reliability of the Total Motion Release® Scale

Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Madeline P. Casanova, Nickolai J.P. Martonick, Jayme Baker, and Russell T. Baker

Context: Total Motion Release® (TMR®) is a novel treatment paradigm used to restore asymmetries in the body (eg, pain, tightness, limited range of motion). Six primary movements, known as the Fab 6, are performed by the patient and scored using a 0 to 100 scale. Clinicians currently utilize the TMR® scale to modify treatment, assess patient progress, and measure treatment effectiveness; however, the reliability of the TMR® scale has not been determined. It is imperative to assess scale reliability and establish minimal detectable change (MDC) values to guide clinical practice. Objective: To assess the reliability of the TMR® scale and establish MDC values for each motion in healthy individuals in a group setting. Design: Retrospective analysis of group TMR® assessments. Setting: University classroom. Participants: A convenience sample of 61 students (23 males and 38 females; 25.48 [5.73] y), with (n = 31) and without (n = 30) previous exposure to TMR®. Intervention: The TMR® Fab 6 movements were tested at 2 time points, 2 hours apart. A clinician with previous training in TMR® led participant groups through both sessions while participants recorded individual motion scores using the 0 to 100 TMR® scale. Test–retest reliability was calculated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) for inexperienced, experienced, and combined student groups. Standard error of measurement and MDC values were also assessed for each intraclass correlation coefficient. Outcome Measure: Self-reported scores on the TMR® scale. Results: Test–retest reliability ranged from 0.57 to 0.95 across the Fab 6 movements, standard error of measurement values ranged from 4.85 to 11.77, and MDC values ranged from 13.45 to 32.62. Conclusion: The results indicate moderate to excellent reliability across the Fab 6 movements and a range of MDC values. Although this study is the first step in assessing the reliability of the TMR® scale for clinical practice, caution is warranted until further research is completed to establish reliability and MDC values of the TMR® scale in various settings to better guide patient care.

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Reliability and Fall-Risk Predictability of the Short Form of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale in Iranian Older Adults

Ehsan Sinaei, Debra J. Rose, Samira Javadpour, and Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad

and Total Score of SF-FAB Scale Test item R1 ICC [95% CI] R2 ICC [95% CI] R3 ICC [95% CI] R4 ICC [95% CI] Step up onto and over a 15.24-cm (6-in.) bench .97* [.95, .98] .99* [.98, .99] .99* [.98, .99] 1.00* [NA, NA] Tandem walking .88* [.83, .92] .98* [.97, .99] .98* [.97, .99] .97* [.95, .98] Stand

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Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Urdu Version of Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version in Pakistan

Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

during the stress of competition . BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 2 ( 1 ), Article 000118 . Chou , C.-P. , Bentler , P.M. , & Satorra , A. ( 1991 ). Scaled test statistics and robust standard errors for non-normal data in covariance structure

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Development and Validation of a Scale Assessing Test Anxiety in Physical Education

Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret, and François Cury

I feel tense was replaced by During PE tests, I feel more tense than during PE lessons ). Items from the worry subscale of the initial RTA scale were maintained in their existing version. Third, one of the subscales of the initial RTA scale (test-irrelevant thinking) was not particularly adapted

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Improved Physical Health in Middle-Older Aged Golf Caddies Following 24 Weeks of High-Volume Physical Activity

Graeme G. Sorbie, Ashley K. Williams, Sophie E. Carter, Amy K. Campbell, Jonathan Glen, David Lavallee, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Andrew Murray, and Alexander J. Beaumont

Scale test, designed to measure balance in older adults. 34 This test consists of a 14-item scale, measured from 0 to 4 scored subjectively by the rater. 35 Total scores of 0 to 20 demonstrate balance impairment, 21 to 40 represent suitable balance, and 41 to 56 show good balance. 34 , 35 The items

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Association Between Physical Performance Tests and External Load During Scrimmages in Highly Trained Youth Ice Hockey Players

Per T. Byrkjedal, Thomas Bjørnsen, Live S. Luteberget, Kolbjørn Lindberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Eirik Haukali, and Matt Spencer

Physical off-ice testing for ice hockey players has been completed for decades, with the North American National Hockey League (NHL) being a large-scale pioneer of their implementation with the NHL Combine test battery, annually conducting large-scale testing of worldwide youngsters potentially

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Effects of Physical Exercise on the P300 of Elderly With Alzheimer’s Disease

Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga, and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz

, having the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating, and the 30-question Geriatric Depression Scale tests administered just after. During a second visit, anthropometric measurements were taken (weight, height, and body mass index), and the P300 was evaluated. All evaluations were

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TGMD-2 Short Version: Evidence of Validity and Associations With Sex, Age, and BMI in Preschool Children

Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Michael Duncan, Maria Luiza Pessoa, Ívina Soares, Larissa da Silva, Jorge Mota, and Clarice Martins

a robust (scaled) test statistic; b = sample-size adjusted BIC. * p -value < .01. The skills factorial loadings of the final model with two domains and six motor skills presented an acceptable value (0.61) for the CR (Figure  1 ). Figure 1 —Final model with six skills. After testing the fittest