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Deborah L. Dewar, David Revalds Lubans, Philip James Morgan and Ronald C. Plotnikoff


This study aimed to develop and evaluate the construct validity and reliability of modernized social cognitive measures relating to physical activity behaviors in adolescents.


An instrument was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, situation (perceived physical environment), social support, behavioral strategies, and outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered in a sample of 171 adolescents (age = 13.6 ± 1.2 years, females = 61%). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices, including chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha).


Each scale represented a statistically sound measure: fit indices indicated each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable to good (α = 0.63−0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.82−0.91).


Results support the validity and reliability of social cognitive scales relating to physical activity among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for the identification of potential social cognitive correlates of youth physical activity, mediators of physical activity behavior changes and the testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle

measure variables that can predict referee retention. A few referee specific scales do exist. The Soccer Officials Stress Survey ( Taylor & Daniel, 1987 ) and the Basketball Officials Sources of Stress Inventory ( Kaissidis & Anshel, 1993 ) were precursors to Anshel et al.’s ( 2013 ) Sources of Acute

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

methodologies to assess motivationally relevant behaviors of the coach or teacher (for a recent review, see Smith, Quested, Appleton, & Duda, 2016 ). However, there has been a relative dearth of such approaches in the exercise domain. Self-determination theory-based observation scales have been designed to

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

with growth and maturation has been persistently misinterpreted through the uncritical use of ratio scaling of data (mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ). More appropriate means of accommodating body size were well-established in the general biological sciences (eg,  19 ) before the initial studies of children’s aerobic

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Matheus Lima Oliveira, Isabela Christina Ferreira, Kariny Realino Ferreira, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Michelle Almeida Barbosa and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

to avoid any assessment biases. The hanging scale (HS) may be a cost-effective alternative to ensure accurate and safe performance for muscle strength assessments. The battery operated equipment is used for weighting in a suspended manner, with good precision and wide weight ranges. It is very

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

support for physical activity. The failure to consider the individual contributions of the multiple forms of social support likely arise from the lack of a validated measure to assess these as distinct subscales. Four validated social support for physical activity scales for adults are currently used in

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Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

designed to create behavior change in a targeted population, large-scale curriculum interventions with multiple variables involving diverse communities and schools can lead to policy changes, refine educational practice, and enhance the learning environment. In other words, curriculum interventions can

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

numerous individual differences among students. The existing scales (e.g.,  Benson & El-Zahhar, 1994 ; Spielberger, 1980 ) assess test anxiety in general, regardless of the school discipline and its potential specificities, as may be the case for physical education (PE). PE is often considered an

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Hans Kainz, Hoa X. Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R. Boyd, David G. Lloyd and Christopher P. Carty

by personalizing a generic model using linear scaling methods, 5 functional scaling methods, 6 or statistical shape models. 7 Due to time constraints in the clinical workflow and limited joint range of motion in many patients, linear scaling methods are typically used to personalize

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Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett and Trina Hinkley

recently a short form called PSDQ-S ( Marsh, Martin, & Jackson, 2010 ) based on the model of Shavelson et al. ( 1976 ). The PSDQ is one of the most frequently used scales in physical self-concept research and has been translated into many languages (among others, French: Guérin, Marsh, & Famose, 2004