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Hans Kainz, Hoa X. Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R. Boyd, David G. Lloyd, and Christopher P. Carty

by personalizing a generic model using linear scaling methods, 5 functional scaling methods, 6 or statistical shape models. 7 Due to time constraints in the clinical workflow and limited joint range of motion in many patients, linear scaling methods are typically used to personalize

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John H. Challis

In 1726 Jonathan Swift, in his novel Gulliver’s Travels , embarked on one of the earliest attempts at biological scaling. When Gulliver’s ship flounders he is washed ashore on the island country of Lilliput where the natives were no more than 6 inches tall, one-twelfth of Gulliver’s height. When

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner, and Jacob K. Tingle

measure variables that can predict referee retention. A few referee specific scales do exist. The Soccer Officials Stress Survey ( Taylor & Daniel, 1987 ) and the Basketball Officials Sources of Stress Inventory ( Kaissidis & Anshel, 1993 ) were precursors to Anshel et al.’s ( 2013 ) Sources of Acute

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Mary Page Leggett-James, Matthew E. Vanaman, Danielle Lindner, and Robert L. Askew

and psychometric evaluation of a scale designed to measure exercise overvaluation, with the goal of providing researchers with an instrument that can be used to better elucidate the relationships between exercise and physical and psychological outcomes. Better understanding the relationship between

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani, and Jennie E. Hancox

methodologies to assess motivationally relevant behaviors of the coach or teacher (for a recent review, see Smith, Quested, Appleton, & Duda, 2016 ). However, there has been a relative dearth of such approaches in the exercise domain. Self-determination theory-based observation scales have been designed to

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Emilie N. Miley, Ashley J. Reeves, Madeline P. Casanova, Nickolai J.P. Martonick, Jayme Baker, and Russell T. Baker

of greatest dysfunction (ie, right or left) for each motion using a 0 (no problems at all) to 100 (the worst) scale. The motion with the greatest impairment/imbalance (ie, highest score) is commonly treated first on the patient’s “good” side (ie, the side without impairment/imbalance). 1 , 4 , 5

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

with growth and maturation has been persistently misinterpreted through the uncritical use of ratio scaling of data (mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ). More appropriate means of accommodating body size were well-established in the general biological sciences (eg,  19 ) before the initial studies of children’s aerobic

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Matheus Lima Oliveira, Isabela Christina Ferreira, Kariny Realino Ferreira, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Michelle Almeida Barbosa, and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

to avoid any assessment biases. The hanging scale (HS) may be a cost-effective alternative to ensure accurate and safe performance for muscle strength assessments. The battery operated equipment is used for weighting in a suspended manner, with good precision and wide weight ranges. It is very

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret, and François Cury

numerous individual differences among students. The existing scales (e.g.,  Benson & El-Zahhar, 1994 ; Spielberger, 1980 ) assess test anxiety in general, regardless of the school discipline and its potential specificities, as may be the case for physical education (PE). PE is often considered an

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

support for physical activity. The failure to consider the individual contributions of the multiple forms of social support likely arise from the lack of a validated measure to assess these as distinct subscales. Four validated social support for physical activity scales for adults are currently used in