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Hans Kainz, Hoa X. Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R. Boyd, David G. Lloyd and Christopher P. Carty

by personalizing a generic model using linear scaling methods, 5 functional scaling methods, 6 or statistical shape models. 7 Due to time constraints in the clinical workflow and limited joint range of motion in many patients, linear scaling methods are typically used to personalize

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John H. Challis

In 1726 Jonathan Swift, in his novel Gulliver’s Travels , embarked on one of the earliest attempts at biological scaling. When Gulliver’s ship flounders he is washed ashore on the island country of Lilliput where the natives were no more than 6 inches tall, one-twelfth of Gulliver’s height. When

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle

measure variables that can predict referee retention. A few referee specific scales do exist. The Soccer Officials Stress Survey ( Taylor & Daniel, 1987 ) and the Basketball Officials Sources of Stress Inventory ( Kaissidis & Anshel, 1993 ) were precursors to Anshel et al.’s ( 2013 ) Sources of Acute

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

methodologies to assess motivationally relevant behaviors of the coach or teacher (for a recent review, see Smith, Quested, Appleton, & Duda, 2016 ). However, there has been a relative dearth of such approaches in the exercise domain. Self-determination theory-based observation scales have been designed to

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

with growth and maturation has been persistently misinterpreted through the uncritical use of ratio scaling of data (mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ). More appropriate means of accommodating body size were well-established in the general biological sciences (eg,  19 ) before the initial studies of children’s aerobic

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Matheus Lima Oliveira, Isabela Christina Ferreira, Kariny Realino Ferreira, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Michelle Almeida Barbosa and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa

to avoid any assessment biases. The hanging scale (HS) may be a cost-effective alternative to ensure accurate and safe performance for muscle strength assessments. The battery operated equipment is used for weighting in a suspended manner, with good precision and wide weight ranges. It is very

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

support for physical activity. The failure to consider the individual contributions of the multiple forms of social support likely arise from the lack of a validated measure to assess these as distinct subscales. Four validated social support for physical activity scales for adults are currently used in

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Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

designed to create behavior change in a targeted population, large-scale curriculum interventions with multiple variables involving diverse communities and schools can lead to policy changes, refine educational practice, and enhance the learning environment. In other words, curriculum interventions can

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

numerous individual differences among students. The existing scales (e.g.,  Benson & El-Zahhar, 1994 ; Spielberger, 1980 ) assess test anxiety in general, regardless of the school discipline and its potential specificities, as may be the case for physical education (PE). PE is often considered an

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Paola Cesari and Karl M. Newell

The experiment reported examined: (a) the role of the geometrical body scaled informational invariant for the transition of human grip configurations; (b) whether the same invariant can be scaled considering also the force applied during the grasp phase; and (c) how the temporal duration of the grasp and displacement phases of prehension are scaled to the object properties of size and mass. Adult subjects performed a series of trials in reaching, grasping, and displacing spheres that varied in size and mass. The grip transitions were described by the body scaled relation:

K=logLs+logMsa+bMh+cLh
where Ls and Ms are, respectively, the diameter and the mass of the spheres grasped and Lh and Mh are the length and the mass of the hand. The impulse during the grasp phase was linearly related with the mass of the spheres within each density. The temporal durations of the grasp and displacement components were scaled coherently to the object properties. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that the grasp and displacement components of prehension are organized coherently within a single action.