exercises have been previously studied and identified, 13 but they have not been identified for CKC exercises. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CKC exercises that produce optimal muscle ratios of the scapular stabilizers in healthy shoulders. We believe that analyzing the extent
Damla Karabay, Yusuf Emük, and Derya Özer Kaya
Jennifer L. Lister, Gianluca Del Rossi, Fangchao Ma, Mark Stoutenberg, Jessica B. Adams, Sara Tobkin, and Joseph F. Signorile
There are numerous ways to overload the scapular stabilizers.
To assess scapular stabilizer activity using the Bodyblade® and other traditional training devices.
Repeated measures analysis of surface EMG data collected from the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shoulder flexion and abduction using Bodyblade®, cuff weight, and Thera-Band® resistance.
Thirty collegiate athletes (20.0 ± 1.7 years).
Participants performed 10 repetitions of shoulder flexion and abduction.
Main Outcome Measures:
For each movement, normalized root mean square values (NrmsEMG) were computed for each muscle during each repetition under each training condition. Data were analyzed using 3 (condition) × 10 (repetition) repeated measures ANOVAs.
During shoulder flexion and abduction, the NrmsEMG of the UT, LT, and SA were significantly greater when using the Bodyblade® than the Thera-Band® or cuff weight.
The Bodyblade® produces greater scapular activity than traditional resistance techniques.
Gretchen Oliver, Lisa Henning, and Hillary Plummer
The purpose of this study was to examine activations of selected scapular stabilizing musculature while performing an overhead throw with a hold (not releasing the ball) in two different throwing positions—standing with a crow hop and kneeling on the ipsilateral knee. Surface electromyography was used to examine activations of throwing side lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT), serratus anterior (SA), and upper trapezius (UT). Muscle activations were recorded while performing the overhead throw with holds while in two throwing positions. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences between the two throwing conditions and muscle activations of LT, MT, SA, and UT: F(8,124) = .804, p = .600; Wilks’s Λ = .904, partial η2 = .049. Although no significant differences were observed in the scapular stabilizers between the two conditions, moderate (21–50% MVIC) to high (> 50% MVIC) activations of each muscle were present, indicating that nonrelease throws may be beneficial for scapular stabilization in throwers.
Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Sakiko Oyama, Jeffrey T. Spang, William Prentice, and Joseph B. Myers
Shoulder injuries are common in swimmers because of the demands of the sport. Muscle imbalances frequently exist due to the biomechanics of the sport, which predispose swimmers to injury. To date, an effective shoulder-injury-prevention program for competitive swimmers has not been established.
To assess the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening and stretching intervention program on improving glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength and scapular kinematics in collegiate swimmers.
Randomized control trial.
University biomechanics research laboratory.
Forty-four Division I collegiate swimmers.
The intervention program was completed 3 times per week for 6 wk. The program included strengthening exercises completed using resistance tubing—scapular retraction (Ts), scapular retraction with upward rotation (Ys), scapular retraction with downward rotation (Ws), shoulder flexion, low rows, throwing acceleration and deceleration, scapular punches, shoulder internal rotation at 90° abduction, and external rotation at 90° abduction—and 2 stretching exercises: corner stretch and sleeper stretch.
Main Outcome Measurements:
Scapular kinematics and glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength assessed preintervention and postintervention.
There were no significant between-groups differences in strength variables at pre/post tests, although shoulder-extension and internal-rotation strength significantly increased in all subjects regardless of group assignment. Scapular kinematic data revealed increased scapular internal rotation, protraction, and elevation in all subjects at posttesting but no significant effect of group on the individual kinematic variables.
The current strengthening and stretching program was not effective in altering strength and scapular kinematic variables but may serve as a framework for future programs. Adding more stretching exercises, eliminating exercises that overlap with weight-room training and swim training, and timing of implementation may yield a more beneficial program for collegiate swimmers.
Jun-Seok Kim, Moon-Hwan Kim, Duk-Hyun Ahn, and Jae-Seop Oh
shoulder impingement syndrome. 7 , 8 Because the serratus anterior (SA) muscle mainly functions as a scapular stabilizer during arm movement, 9 , 10 it is important to accurately assess and train the SA muscle during musculoskeletal rehabilitation of individuals with a WS. The SA muscle is an important
Joseph M. Day, Ann M. Lucado, R. Barry Dale, Harold Merriman, Craig D. Marker, and Tim L. Uhl
likely contributing to excessive stresses at the common wrist extensor tendon. Strength impairments of the scapular stabilizers, including the lower trapezius and the serratus anterior, have been found in both a group of women tennis players and in a mixed-gender group of nonathletes with LET. 29 – 31 We
Joseph B. Myers
Shoulder pain is a common complaint among overhead athletes. Oftentimes, the cause of pain is impingement of the supraspinatus, bicipital tendon, and subacromial bursa between the greater tuberosity and the acromial arch. The mechanisms of impingement syndrome include anatomical abnormalities, muscle weakness and fatigue of the glenohumeral and scapular stabilizers, posterior capsular tightness, and glenohumeral instability. In order to effectively manage impingement syndrome nonoperatively, the therapist must understand the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder joint, as well as how to thoroughly evaluate the athlete. The results of the evaluation can then be used to design and implement a rehabilitation program that addresses the cause of impingement specific to the athlete. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with a thorough overview of what causes impingement and how to effectively evaluate and conservatively manage it in an athletic population.
İlker Eren, Nazan Canbulat, Ata Can Atalar, Şule Meral Eren, Ayla Uçak, Önder Çerezci, and Mehmet Demirhan
proprioception and gaining agility Capsular stretching exercises for full ROM Strengthening for rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers (dumbbell and thera band) Closed kinetic chain exercises for scapular stabilizers (push-up, press-up, and rowing) Plyometric exercises after 16th wk V: Functional phase (22nd wk
Michelle A. Sandrey
Effect of a 6-week strengthening program on shoulder and scapular-stabilizer strength and scapular kinematics in Division I collegiate swimmers Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness: a randomized controlled
Charles Goulet and Isabelle Rogowski
the tennis serve and forehand drive. 23 , 24 In addition to the targeted muscle strength enhancement, the unstable posture adopted in sling-based exercises is known to contribute to strengthening the stabilizer muscles. 25 Strengthening of the scapular stabilizers and lumbo-pelvic muscles along with