.S. secondary schools had a full CSPAP ( Brener et al., 2017 ). Similar data for elementary schools are not available. Physical education is the school context with the most physical activity policies, especially at the state level where the ultimate responsibility for education rests. Unfortunately, state physical
Thomas L. McKenzie
Melinda A. Solmon, Terry Worthy, and Jo A. Carter
The interactive model views the teacher as a powerful socializing agent and establishes links between biographical characteristics and the demands of different contexts. This study describes the dynamic interaction of factors related to teacher role identity and school context. Specifically the goal was to employ case studies to examine the biographies of three first-year teachers to determine how individual perception of the teaching role impacts professional development during the first year of teaching. Using subject interviews, field notes, lesson plans, student performance data, and informal interviews with administrators and coworkers, a comparison was made between the cases to learn how the teaching perspectives of first-year teachers interact with school contexts. Results support the notion that the beginning teacher can be an active agent in controlling the direction of biography and social structures in the socialization process.
Tom Martinek and Michael A. Hemphill
Don Hellison fully realized that getting students to become positive contributors to their community meant that experiences that engender a greater sense of being a responsible person had to be provided. He leveraged the power of out-of-school time programming to implement his Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model and build relationships with variety of underserved youth. Don also understood that community partnerships were important in this effort. This article provides a glimpse at how Don was able to establish TPSR programs in a variety of out-of-school settings—all of which addressed the needs of underserved children and youth. A historical context is provided to illustrate the placement of TPSR in the broader movement of positive youth development. Don’s programs that operated during out-of-school time and spanned the western region of the country to the urban sections of Chicago are described. Inconsistent partner support, scarcity of program space, and feelings of self-doubt are presented as challenges to the viability of TPSR programming. His commitment to making programs work despite these challenges is portrayed. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to illustrate how Don’s work has made a significant contribution to the positive youth development movement within out-of-school time contexts.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers, and Jan Seghers
Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, and Jan Seghers
Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.
Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, and Niek Pot
This article considers the value of physical literacy. Unequivocal support for aspects of the concept can be found in philosophy, neuroscience, social justice, the nature of human development, psychology, and sociocultural studies. These areas of support will be outlined and then related to the practical value of physical literacy in the school context. This article will close with a discussion centered on claims that physical literacy is an end in itself rather than predominantly a means to other ends. It is the aim of this article to communicate the unique value of fostering physical literacy within the school context, including the support and relationship to other interrelated disciplines.
Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris
This article explores the role of knowledge and understanding in fostering physical literacy, which is considered fundamental to successful participation in physical activity, and to valuing and taking responsibility for engaging in physical activities for life. First, it highlights the place and importance of knowledge and understanding within the broad concept, cognitive domain, and attributes of physical literacy. The type, scope, and progression of knowledge and understanding deemed necessary to foster physical literacy are then explored, with attention paid to knowledge of health within the school context in particular. To conclude, the article outlines selected pedagogical approaches and practical strategies for developing and monitoring such knowledge and understanding.
Laura Azzarito and Melinda Solmon
Despite significant theoretical and practical progress over the past 20 years, the social construction of gender and its link to youths’ participation in physical activity in school contexts remain critical issues that call for further socioeducational scrutiny. In this study, researchers investigated the ways students’ embodiment of discursive constructs differed in terms of gender and race, and the relation between students’ embodied discursive constructs and students’ favorite or least favorite physical activities in physical education classes. The participants were 528 students from three public high schools. A survey was developed to assess students’ embodiment of discursive constructs. These results suggest that discursive constructs are influential in producing students’ choice of “gender-appropriate” physical activities. To destabilize the gender binary, therefore, the creation and promotion of a discourse of the “multiplicity of physicality” is proposed.
J.T. Deenihan and Ann MacPhail
How preservice teachers (PSTs) learn and deliver Sport Education (SE) (Sieden-top, 1994) is an area researchers believe warrants further investigation (Stran &R Curtner-Smith, 2009a). This study explores one PST’s experiences delivering SE during a school teaching placement after undertaking a practical SE module in his Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) program. Data were collected through pre, mid- and postteaching placement interviews, along with weekly visits by the first author where observation reflections and interviews were used to investigate his experiences delivering SE. Data were triangulated and analyzed using thematic coding. Occupational socialization (Lawson, 1983a, 1983b) was used to determine the factors which influenced his delivery of SE. Results showed his SE season was influenced by his teaching orientation, sporting experiences, PETE program and school context where he was teaching. Although he encountered difficulties, he valued SE’s benefits and continued to use it during his subsequent career as a qualified teacher.
Paul Baar and Theo Wubbels
The majority of research on children’s peer aggression has focused exclusively on the school context. Very few studies have investigated peer aggression in sports clubs. The prevalence and stability of peer aggression, prosocial behavior, and resource control strategies for children participating in three types of sports (martial arts, contact, and noncontact sports) were examined in two contexts: the sports club and the elementary school. We distinguished aggressive children with (i.e., Machiavellians) and without prosocial tendencies (i.e., coercive-aggressive children). Self-reports about experiences in the two contexts where gathered from 1,425 Dutch elementary school students (717 boys and 708 girls, fourth to sixth grade, mean age 11.25 years) who were participating in a sports club. We found roles for resource control strategies to be rather stable across contexts. The findings did not provide support for the “enhancement” assumption in these contexts with regard to martial arts participants.