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Shan-Hui (Tiffany) Hsu and Rose Chepyator-Thomson

The purpose of the study focused on how textbook authors in secondary school physical education used multicultural education concepts, using Banks’ (2006a) dimensions and Sleeter and Grant’s (1999) approaches. Data collection methods included examination of textbooks’ chapters, indexes, and references in five textbooks. Constant comparison method was used in data analysis. The findings of the study follow: 1) Most textbook authors treated multicultural education as an additive concept in the curriculum section and emphasized issues of gender and disability, 2) all of the textbook authors adopted either Banks’ or Sleeter and Grant’s multicultural education approaches, (3) Harrison, Blakemore, and Buck addressed issues of gender, disability and ethnicity in content objectives, and 4) Metzler addressed issues of gender and disability with Banks’ content integration and equity-based pedagogy concepts. An implication concerns incorporation of multicultural education concepts in curriculum and pedagogy in preparation of preservice teachers in secondary school physical education.

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Moira D. Luke and Gary D. Sinclair

The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the potential determinants of male and female adolescents’ attitudes toward school physical education. Students (N=488), randomly selected from four large metropolitan schools, were asked to comment on their school physical education experience from kindergarten through Grade 10. A systematic content analysis was used to categorize these responses. Three main questions were addressed: What factors in the K-10 physical education experience of male/female students contribute to the development of positive/negative attitudes toward physical education? Are these factors different for males and females? Are they different for students electing to take school physical education? Five main determinants of attitude were identified in ranked order: curriculum content, teacher behavior, class atmosphere, student self-perceptions, and facilities. Overall, male and female students identified the same determinants in the same order of priority.

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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride and Xiaoxia Su


Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.


Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.


Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.


The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Barbara Tyree Smith and Grace Goc Karp

This qualitative study explored how students adapt to marginalization in a seventh-grade middle school physical education class in the Pacific North-west. The study’s focus included how marginalized students were excluded within the class and how students, identified as marginalized, adapted to exclusion or temporary acceptance. Marginalized students were those who were unable to be accepted into or remain in a group for a period of time (approximately one week). Data were collected through 60 field observations, over a 14-week time period. Informal and formal interviews were conducted with teachers and students. Three boys and 2 girls were identified as marginalized within the physical education class. Formation of groups and strategies used to exclude marginalized students were found to greatly influence how students became initially marginalized. Once marginalized, students rarely changed their status, although a few were able to use strategies that reduced their status temporarily.

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Judith L. Oslin

This investigation examined the role of routines and activity structures as organizing features in middle school physical education. Six physical education specialists from one suburban middle school were observed during their first four lessons at the beginning of the year and during an additional lesson at midyear. Analysis revealed that routines and activity structures were well established by Day 4 and remained through midyear. Three categories of routines emerged: management, instructional support, and instructional exchange. Activity structures increased when formal instruction began, with four segments occurring during Days 1 and 2 and seven segments observed by Days 3 and 4. Although the types of routines used by these six teachers were similar, differences among teachers appeared to be related to how routines were presented, implemented, and enforced. A number of environmental features appeared to coerce utilization and implementation of routines.

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Josée Perron and Peggy J. Downey

The purpose of this study was to describe the management techniques used by high school physical education teachers immediately before (preactive) and after (reactive) student behavior. Eight experienced physical educators were videotaped as they each taught four lessons of their regular schedule. Formal and informal interviews with the teachers were audiotaped and/or recorded in field notes. Management techniques observed during lessons or described during interviews were analyzed by deduction using the 22 categories of Henkel’s (1991) Physical Education Pupil Control Inventory (PEPCI). New categories were developed by induction to accommodate observed or discussed techniques that could not be coded into Henkel’s categories. These secondary physical education teachers used 28 different management techniques, including 21 (75%) from Henkel’s PEPCI and 7 (25%) others observed by the researcher or described by the teachers. Findings contribute to a foundation for further research into the positive management of student behavior.

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Nikos Ntoumanis, Anne-Marte Pensgaard, Chris Martin and Katie Pipe

The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth account of amotivation in compulsory school physical education by examining its major causes, the way it is displayed, and how it can be tackled. From an initial participant pool of 390 British schoolchildren ages 14 to 15 years, 21 of them (15 girls and 6 boys) were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. They were categorized as being amotivated based on their responses to a questionnaire measuring motivation in physical education. Three main perceived causes of amotivation were identified in the interviews: learned helplessness beliefs, low need satisfaction, and contextual factors. Amotivation was mainly displayed by nonattendance, low involvement in the class, and low intention to be physically active after leaving school. Students’ suggestions for reducing amotivation focused on the enhancement of positive affect, need satisfaction, and structural/organizational changes. The findings are discussed in conjunction with contemporary motivation theories and models of amotivation.

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Sarah A. Doolittle, Paul B. Rukavina, Weidong Li, Mara Manson and Angela Beale

Using the Social Ecological Constraints model, a qualitative multiple case study design was used to explore experienced and committed middle school physical education teachers’ perspectives on overweight and obese students (OWS), and how and why they acted to include OWS in physical education and physical activity opportunities in their school environments. Three themes emerged. 1) OWS are “the same, but different.” Teachers attempted to treat all students the same, but perceived variations among OWS’ participation in PE and related individual constraints. 2) Teachers’ concerns lead to individual goals and specific actions. Teachers identified specific goals and approaches to help individual OWS who needed extra attention. 3) OWS are a responsibility and challenge. Many of these teachers felt a responsibility to devote extra time and effort to help struggling OWS to succeed. These teachers avoided obesity bias, and exhibited beliefs and actions similar to a caring perspective.

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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau and James C. Hannon


Optimal levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have been shown to improve health and academic outcomes in youth. Limited research has examined MVPA trajectories throughout a daily middle school physical education (PE) curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine MVPA trajectories over a daily PE curriculum and the modifying effects of sex, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endurance.


One hundred 7th- and 8th-grade students participated in daily PE lessons. There were 66 lessons throughout the semester. MVPA was monitored during each lesson using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. Students were classified into FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones using estimated VO2 Max and Body Mass Index (BMI). A population averaged generalized estimating equation was employed to examine MVPA trajectories.


On average, students’ MVPA decreased over time (β = –0.35, P < .001). Poor student VO2max classification significantly modified the trajectories (β = –0.14, P < .001), however poor BMI classification did not have a modifying effect (β = 0.03, P = .158).


MVPA decreased in daily PE over time and cardiorespiratory endurance significantly modified the trajectories. The results support that extra efforts have to be made by teachers and students to sustain MVPA behaviors over a semester.

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Alex C. Garn, David R. Ware and Melinda A. Solmon

High school physical education classes provide students with numerous opportunities for social interactions, but few studies have explored how social strivings impact class engagement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among 2 × 2 achievement goals, social motivation orientations, and effort in high school physical education classes using contemporary goal theory. A total of 105 ninth and tenth grade students reported their social motivation orientations, achievement goal orientations, and effort toward physical education. All four 2 × 2 achievement goals and three social motivation orientations had positive relationships with students’ self-reported effort in physical education. Further regression analysis revealed that mastery approach, performance avoidance, and social status goal orientations accounted for unique variance in explaining self-reported effort in high school physical education. Thus, students’ social strivings produce constructive outcomes in high school physical education and teachers who are able to promote healthy social climates can reap these benefits.