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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Gary W. Cohen, Melissa C. Kay, Dayna K. Tierney and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

environment, family members should monitor symptoms, including sleep-related symptoms, as well as impose prescribed rest and recovery recommendations. 12 , 13 Comprehensive concussion assessment and management in the secondary school setting not only necessitates athletic trainers to establish relationships

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Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly and Ciaran MacDonncha

test coordinator and administrator; the physical education teacher coordinates the test battery and fitness tests are administered by trained senior students; or finally, peer testing, where students measure each other’s fitness. Given the greater degree of variability in secondary school settings, and

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Jianmin Guan, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang

Two types of social goals associated with students’ academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal, and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have applied these social goal scales to high school students in physical education settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the scores produced by the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southern United States. Reliability analyses, principal components factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multistep invariance analysis across two school samples revealed that the SGS-PE produced reliable and valid scores when used to assess students’ social goal levels in high school physical education settings.

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Monica Lounsbery, Tim Bungum and Nicole Smith

Objectives:

We examined the status of physical activity opportunity in Nevada K-12 public schools. The focus was on determining both prevalence and nature of existing programs as well as school administrators’ perceived barriers to offering physical activity programs.

Methods:

A 15 item questionnaire was used to assess prevalence and nature of programs as well as perceived barriers.

Results:

Nevada school-age children do not have regular access to physical education. Excluding physical education, more than 30% of schools do not provide physical activity programming. Most existing programs are competitive sport related. In addition, as students matriculate through school, fewer program options and opportunities to participate throughout the school day are available. Lack of funds was the most frequently reported perceived barrier to offering physical activity programs.

Conclusions:

Opportunities to be physically active over the course of the school day are limited and as a result, hinder important national objectives for health-related outcomes.

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Timothy A. McGuine

Edited by John Parsons

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Tina Claiborne, Su-I Hou and Thomas Cappaert

Column-editor : Elizabeth Swann

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Irene Esteban-Cornejo, David Martinez-Gomez, Laura Garcia-Cervantes, Francisco B. Ortega, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, José Castro-Piñero and Oscar L. Veiga

Background:

This study examined the associations of objectively measured physical activity in Physical Education and recess with academic performance in youth.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,780 participants aged 6 to 18 years (863 girls). Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry and was also classified according to sex- and agespecific quartiles of physical activity intensities. Academic performance was assessed through school records.

Results:

Physical activity in physical education (PE) and recess was not associated with academic performance (β ranging from –0.038 to –0.003; all P > .05). Youth in the lowest quartile of physical activity in PE engaged in an average of 1.40 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and those in the highest quartile engaged in 21.60 min (for recess: lowest quartile, 2.20 min; highest quartile, 11.15 min). There were no differences in academic performance between quartiles of physical activity in Physical Education and recess.

Conclusions:

Time spent at different physical activity intensities during PE and recess does not impair academic performance in youth.

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Janet E. Simon, Matthew Donahue and Carrie L. Docherty

Taping and bracing are commonly used to protect the ankle joint and prevent ankle sprains. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine ATs’ utilization of prophylactic support and (2) determine attitudes and behaviors toward the use of ankle taping and bracing. A survey was distributed electronically to 7,888 ATs. Over half of the responding ATs encouraged athletes to wear some form of ankle support. A majority of college ATs either encouraged or required athletes to use ankle taping, indicating the decision is derived from a complex integration of athlete preferences, the clinician’s internal evidence, and the best available external evidence.

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Julian A. Reed, Gilles Einstein, Erin Hahn, Steven P. Hooker, Virginia P. Gross and Jen Kravitz

Purpose:

To examine the impact of integrating physical activity with elementary curricula on fluid intelligence and academic achievement.

Methods:

A random sample of 3rd grade teachers integrated physical activity into their core curricula approximately 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week from January 2008 to April 2008. Noninvasive fluid intelligence cognitive measures were used along with State-mandated academic achievement tests.

Results:

Experimental Group children averaged close to 1200 pedometer steps per integration day, thus averaging 3600 steps per week. Children in the Experimental Group performed significantly better on the SPM Fluid Intelligence Test. Children in the Experimental Group also performed significantly better on the Social Studies State mandated academic achievement test. Experimental Group children also received higher scores on the English/Language Arts, Math and Science achievements tests, but were not statistically significant compared with Control Group children. Children classified in Fitnessgram’s Healthy Fitness Zone for BMI earned lower scores on many of the SPM Fluid Intelligence components.

Discussion:

This investigation provides evidence that movement can influence fluid intelligence and should be considered to promote cognitive development of elementary-age children. Equally compelling were the differences in SPM Fluid Intelligence Test scores for children who were distinguished by Fitnessgram’s BMI cut points.