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Wen-Yen Tseng, Ghazi Rekik, Chia-Hui Chen, Filipe M. Clemente, Pedro Bezerra, Zachary J. Crowley-McHattan, and Yung-Sheng Chen

An increase in physical activity during school hours is a primary focus area to improve health-related fitness 1 and motor competency in school children. 2 , 3 To help achieve this target, children are often encouraged to increase participation rates in physical education (PE) lessons and outdoor

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Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha, and Johan Yau Yin Ng

, & Howlett, 2010a ; LeGear et al., 2012 ). Findings hold across age groups. A large proportion of primary school children were rated as non-proficient in most skills ( Foweather, 2010 ; Hume et al., 2008 ; van Beurden et al., 2003 ), while students arriving at secondary school were also found to not have

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’ Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey, and Con Burns

-old Belgian children ( Bardid et al., 2016 ), pre-school children from the US ( Bellows et al., 2013 ), and pre-school girls in Australia ( Cliff et al., 2009 ) have been categorized as ‘average.’ However, lower FMS levels have also been reported with a ‘below average’ GMQ found among 7- and 8-year

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Lena Zimmo, Fuad Almudahka, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Mohamed G. Al-kuwari, and Abdulaziz Farooq

Literature Review The health benefits of regular physical activity (PA) are well known ( U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2008 ). Despite this knowledge, data show that only 25% of elementary school children in Qatar accumulate the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical

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Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey, and Con Burns

). A recent assessment of FMS proficiency among a cohort of Irish primary school children ( n  = 203) revealed that FMS levels are less than satisfactory, with children demonstrating significantly poorer FMS proficiency levels compared with US normative data ( n  = 1208) ( Bolger et al., 2018

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Giacomo Farì, Stefano Di Paolo, Domenico Ungaro, Gianluca Luperto, Eleonora Farì, and Francesca Latino

.1089/cyber.2017.0324 29293374 9. Saxena R , Vashist P , Tandon R , et al. Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study) . PLoS One . 2017 ; 12 ( 12 ): e0189774 . PubMed ID: 29253002 doi:10.1371/journal

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Laura S. Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer, and Alexis Ortiz


The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children.


Homeschool children ages 8–11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests.


Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 35.503, p < .001) and upper body (t(148) = -3.610, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 4.881, p = .027) strength and endurance. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486).


Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers, Richard S. Farley, Dana K. Fuller, Don W. Morgan, and Jennifer L. Caputo


The benefits of physical fitness are widely acknowledged and extend across many domains of wellness. The association between fitness and academic achievement, however, remains to be clarified, especially in young children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.


Data were collected from 134 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade children. One-mile run time, body mass index, curl-up, and sit-and-reach data were collected from physical education instructors in Middle Tennessee. The percentage of questions answered correctly for the mathematics and reading/language arts sections of the Terra-Nova achievement test was taken as a measure of academic achievement.


A negative association (P < .01) was noted between 1-mile run times and mathematics scores (r = –.28), whereas a positive relationship (P < .05) was observed between muscular fitness and mathematics scores (r = .20). Relative to sex differences, inverse relationships (P < .05) were observed between 1-mile run times and reading/language arts and mathematics scores in girls (r = –.31 and –.36, respectively), but no significant associations were evident in boys.


Results from this study support a link between specific components of physical fitness and academic achievement in elementary school children.

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Kathryn L. Weston, Nicoleta Pasecinic, and Laura Basterfield

Newcastle University Faculty of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee granted ethics approval for the study. The study is part of a wider pilot study investigating associations between quality of life, physical fitness, and body composition in 8- to 10-year-old primary school children (The Sitting, Outdoor play

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Douglas E. Long, Lisa M. Gaetke, Stephen D. Perry, Mark G. Abel, and Jody L. Clasey

The purpose of this study was to descriptively compare the physical activity and dietary intake of public school (PSC) versus home schooled children (HSC). Potential parental and home influences were also examined. Thirty six matched pairs of public school-home school children aged 7–11 years participated in this study. Each participant wore an activity monitor and recorded their dietary intake concurrently for seven consecutive days. PSC had significantly more total and weekday steps, and spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with HSC. There were no differences in dietary intake between the two groups. These results suggest differences in physical activity between PSC and HSC and encourage further study of public and home school environments, in relation to the obesity epidemic.