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The Secondary School Curriculum: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives

Dominique Banville, Risto Marttinen, and Alba Rodrigues

“why” ( Jewett et al., 1995 ) PE should be in the schools. It is difficult to justify the inclusion of PE in the school curriculum when multiple instances of inappropriate practices are present. As Cothran and Ennis’ work almost 25 years ago predicted, changes will have to happen in the curriculum and

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Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity: Active Transport Program for Primary School Children—TravelSMART Schools Curriculum Program

Marj Moodie, Michelle M. Haby, Boyd Swinburn, and Robert Carter


To assess from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness of a school program to increase active transport in 10- to 11-year-old Australian children as an obesity prevention measure.


The TravelSMART Schools Curriculum program was modeled nationally for 2001 in terms of its impact on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measured against current practice. Cost offsets and DALY benefits were modeled until the eligible cohort reached age 100 or died. The intervention was qualitatively assessed against second stage filter criteria (‘equity,’ ‘strength of evidence,’ ‘acceptability to stakeholders,’ ‘feasibility of implementation,’ ‘sustainability,’ and ‘side-effects’) given their potential impact on funding decisions.


The modeled intervention reached 267,700 children and cost $AUD13.3M (95% uncertainty interval [UI] $6.9M; $22.8M) per year. It resulted in an incremental saving of 890 (95%UI −540; 2,900) BMI units, which translated to 95 (95% UI −40; 230) DALYs and a net cost per DALY saved of $AUD117,000 (95% UI dominated; $1.06M).


The intervention was not cost-effective as an obesity prevention measure under base-run modeling assumptions. The attribution of some costs to nonobesity objectives would be justified given the program’s multiple benefits. Cost-effectiveness would be further improved by considering the wider school community impacts.

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Sprint Interval Training and the School Curriculum: Benefits Upon Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity Profiles, and Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles of Healthy Adolescents

Rhona Martin-Smith, Duncan S. Buchan, Julien S. Baker, Mhairi J. Macdonald, Nicholas F. Sculthorpe, Chris Easton, Allan Knox, and Fergal M. Grace

embedding HIIT and SIT interventions within the school curriculum for improving the CRF levels of adolescents. Emerging evidence demonstrates the potential of HIIT to improve CMR outcomes in children and adolescents ( 5 , 29 , 32 , 39 , 47 , 51 ). A recent review on the effect of HIIT on CMR outcomes

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Chapter 8: Properties of Purpose Concepts in an Operational Middle-School Curriculum

Catherine D. Ennis

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Elderly Tomboys? Sources of Self-Efficacy for Physical Activity in Late Life

Sandra O’Brien Cousins

Little research has attended to the possibility that competencies and efficacy for physical activity acquired in childhood may last a lifetime. This study examined self-report and recall data on 327 Vancouver women born between 1896 and 1921 with a view to understanding current sources of self-efficacy for adult fitness activity. Current self-efficacy (SE) for late life fitness activity was assessed alongside age, education, perceived well-being, and movement confidence in childhood (MCC) for six challenging physical skills. Perceived well-being was the best predictor of late life SE for fitness exercise, explaining 26% of the variance. However, MCC was also an equally important and independent predictor of late life SE. even when age. education, and perceived well-being were controlled for. This study provides preliminary evidence that personal estimates of ability to exercise in late life are based on self-evaluations of Wellness, current age, and former competencies that have origins in girlhood mastery experiences over six decades earlier.

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Assessing the Implementation Fidelity of a School-Based Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program in Physical Education and Other Subject Areas

Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig, and Paul M. Wright

( Hellison & Walsh, 2002 ). Because of TPSR’s practical appeal and the fact that its pedagogy is not necessarily linked to physical activity content, it has been proposed that this model may provide an effective framework for promoting social and emotional learning across the school curriculum ( Gordon

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Physical Education Lessons and Physical Activity Intentions Within Spanish Secondary Schools: A Self-Determination Perspective

David Sanchez-Oliva, Pedro Antonio Sanchez-Miguel, Francisco Miguel Leo, Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, and Tomás García-Calvo

Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze how motivational processes within Physical Education classes can predict intention to participate in sport or physical activity outside of the school curriculum. Participants included 1,692 Spanish students aged 12–16 years (M = 13.34; SD = .76) who participated in Physical Education lessons at 32 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling was used for analysis, and showed that perception of basic psychological need (BPN) support from teachers predicted autonomous and controlled motivation through BPN satisfaction. Furthermore, autonomous motivation positively predicted enjoyment, perceived importance of Physical Education, and intention to participate in sport or physical activity outside of school. Controlled motivation negatively predicted enjoyment, and amotivation positively predicted boredom. Finally, enjoyment and perceived importance of Physical Education positively predicted intention to participate in sport or physical activity outside of what was required in school. Results emphasize the importance of school based Physical Education to promote sport and physical activity participation among adolescents.

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Critical Pedagogies in PETE: An Antipodean Perspective

Rod Philpot

In the 1990s, New Zealand and Australia rolled out new school physical education curriculums (Ministry of Education, 1999, 2007; Queensland School Curriculum Council, 1999) signaling a significant change in the purpose of physical education in both countries. These uniquely Antipodean1 curriculum documents were underpinned by a socially critical perspective and physical education teacher education (PETE) programs in both countries needed to adapt to prepare teachers who are capable of engaging PE from a socially critical perspective. One way they attempted to do this was to adopt what has variously been labeled critical pedagogy. Critical pedagogies as a label is something of ‘big tent’ (Lather, 1998) and this paper reports on the published attempts to operationalize critical pedagogy and its reported success or otherwise in preparing teachers for the expectations of the socially critical oriented HPE curriculum in both Australian and New Zealand.

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Reconceptualizing Physical Education Curricula to Meet the Needs of All Students

Melinda A. Solmon

The traditional sport-based multiactivity approach that continues to dominate secondary physical education curricula is problematic on a number of levels. It is often not perceived as making a valuable contribution to the educational process by school administrators or as culturally relevant and interesting to many students. This paper highlights Catherine Ennis’s work related to the shortcomings of this model and the need to move toward a more educational focus. Initially, Ennis described the curricular strife that developed as teachers clung to this approach in the face of a changing educational landscape. Her work evolved to include students’ perspectives, and her writings gave voice to their disengagement and discontent. She continued her extensive writings related to this topic across her career, exploring alternatives and offering solutions to reconceptualize physical education programs to maximize their contribution to the school curriculum and to meet the needs of all students.

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Academic Learning Time in Physical Education Classes for Mentally Handicapped Students

Jocelyn Gagnon, Marielle Tousignant, and Denis Martel

This study employed the Academic Learning Time model to describe the behavior of moderately mentally handicapped students in their physical education classes. The concept of academic learning time (ALT) is defined as the proportion of time a student is engaged in a task related to the learning objectives and is experiencing an appropriate success rate. Subjects were 29 students randomly selected from five adapted-P.E. groups (three elementary and two secondary) in three Quebec City region schools. A French version of the ALT observation system developed by Siedentop, Tousignant, and Parker (1982) was used to code the students’ behavior in P.E. classes. The results reveal that, on the average, only 63% of the time officially allocated to P.E. within the school curriculum was actually used for teacher/student interaction. Moreover, 21% of this 63% was spent organizing the learning activities, 4% in explaining the tasks, and the remaining 75% in motor activities. However, although the number of students in a group varied from five to nine, on the average individuals were successfully motor engaged only 16% of the time and spent 50% of the time waiting.