proficiency, it is important to intervene while taking into account the needs of this population. Research suggests that multicomponent, school-based interventions not only see a rise in PA levels during school hours but can also increase PA levels outside of school time, which is crucial to ensuring the
Bronagh McGrane, Sarahjane Belton, Stuart J. Fairclough, Danielle Powell and Johann Issartel
Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Markus Vinicius Nahas, Pedro Curi Hallal, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Alex Antônio Florindo and Simone Storino Honda de Barros
We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention on the promotion of physical activity among high school students in Brazil: the Saude na Boa project.
A school-based, randomized trial was carried out in 2 Brazilian cities: Recife (northeast) and Florianopolis (south). Ten schools in each city were matched by size and location, and randomized into intervention or control groups. The intervention included environmental/organizational changes, physical activity education, and personnel training and engagement. Students age 15 to 24 years were evaluated at baseline and 9 months later (end of school year).
Although similar at baseline, after the intervention, the control group reported significantly fewer d/wk accumulating 60 minutes+ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in comparison with the intervention group (2.6 versus 3.3, P < .001). The prevalence of inactivity (0 days per week) rose in the control and decreased in the intervention group. The odds ratio for engaging at least once per week in physical activity associated with the intervention was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.24–2.71) in the unadjusted analysis and 1.88 (95% CI = 1.27–2.79) after controlling for gender.
Henrique Nascimento, Ana Inês Alves, Ana Filipa Medeiros, Susana Coimbra, Cristina Catarino, Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha, Elísio Costa, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Gustavo Silva, Luísa Aires, André Seabra, Jorge Mota, Helena Ferreira Mansilha, Carla Rêgo, Alice Santos-Silva and Luis Belo
There are few reliable studies assessing the effect of physical exercise (PE) on adipokines levels at young ages. Our objective was to study the effects of regular PE on plasma adipokines in pediatric overweight and obesity.
117 overweight and obese children and adolescents (47% females; 10.2 years) participated in an 8-month longitudinal study divided in two groups: PE group (n = 80), engaged in an after-school PE program; control group (n = 37), with no PE program. Plasma lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, resistin, leptin, IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, insulin and glucose levels were determined.
contrarily to the control group, the PE group presented reductions in body mass index z-score (BMIzsc) and body fat percentage that were accompanied by an improvement in lipid profile and insulin resistance, a reduction in CRP and TNF-alpha and an increase in adiponectin levels. The reductions in BMIzsc were inversely correlated with changes in adiponectin (r=−0.329, p = .003) and positively correlated with changes in percentage body fat (r = .262, p = .032), triglycerides (r = .228, p = .042) and leptin (r = .285, p = .010).
Moderate reductions in adiposity improve proinflammatory status in obese children and adolescents. A more substantial reduction in BMIzsc was associated with a greater increment in adiponectin and reduction in leptin.
Danilo R. Silva, Cláudia S. Minderico, Pedro B. Júdice, André O. Werneck, David Ohara, Edilson S. Cyrino and Luís B. Sardinha
Background: This investigation aimed to analyze the agreement between the GT3X accelerometer and the ActivPAL inclinometer for estimating and detecting changes in sedentary behavior of different contexts among adolescents. Methods: Secondary data from an intervention using standing desks in the classroom conducted within 2 sixth-grade classes (intervention [n = 22] and control [n = 27]) were used. The intervention took place over 16 weeks, with activity assessments (ActivPAL and GT3X) being performed 7 days before and in the last week of the intervention. Baseline information from both groups was considered for cross-sectional analysis (209 valid days), while data from 20 participants (intervention group) were used for longitudinal analysis. Results: The authors observed that GT3X overestimated sedentary time at school (16.8%), after school (13.5%), and during weekends (7.3%) compared with ActivPAL (P < .05). Outside the school (after school [r = −.188] and on weekends [r = −.260]), there was a trend to higher overestimation among adolescents with less sedentary behavior. Longitudinally, the GT3X was unable to detect changes resulting from an intervention in school hours (ActivPAL = −34.7 min·9 h−1 vs GT3X = +6.7 min·9 h−1; P < .05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that GT3X (cut-point of <100 counts·min−1) overestimated sedentary time of free-living activities and did not detect changes resulting from a classroom standing desk intervention in adolescents.
Jodie Andruschko, Anthony D. Okely and Phil Pearson
obesity in school-based interventions ( Sharma, 2006 ), especially among adolescent females ( Gortmaker et al., 1999 ; Webber et al., 2008 ). We hypothesized that targeting girls with low fitness levels, and focusing on developing their enjoyment and perceived competence in a supportive environment
Margaret Schneider, Genevieve F. Dunton, Stan Bassin, Dan J. Graham, Alon Eliakim and Dan M. Cooper
Many female adolescents participate in insufficient physical activity to maintain cardiovascular fitness and promote optimal bone growth. This study evaluates the impact of a school-based intervention on fitness, activity, and bone among adolescent females.
Subjects were assigned to an intervention (n = 63) or comparison (n = 59) group, and underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak), physical activity, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone turnover at baseline and at the end of each of two school semesters.
The intervention increased physical activity, VO2peak, and BMC for the thoracic spine (P values < 0.05). Bone turnover markers were not affected. In longitudinal analyses of the combined groups, improvements in cardiovascular fitness predicted increased bone formation (P < 0.01) and bone resorption (P < 0.05).
A school-based intervention for adolescent females effectively increased physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and thoracic spine BMC.
Kathleen Van Royen, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Susana Andrade, Angélica Ochoa-Avilés, Silvana Donoso, Lea Maes and Patrick Kolsteren
Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors.
Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (n = 80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. In addition, 4 focus group discussions with parents (n = 32) and 4 with school staff (n = 32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the ‘Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy’ model and the socioecological model as theoretical frameworks.
Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasized traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socioeconomic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models.
A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.
Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear and Ben P. Dyson
A wealth of school-based interventions report on students’ positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e., when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this study was to explore model fidelity in the use of the Cooperative Learning model. Action research and systematic observation (using the Cooperative Learning Validation Tool which acknowledged the observation of key characteristics of the model) were used to confirm model fidelity. Consequently, the themes which emerged from the data analysis of could be directly linked to the authentic use of Cooperative Learning context. The paper concludes by arguing that when reporting on findings from empirical research on the use of Cooperative Learning we need to adopt a more robust approach in determining—through rigor and quality of research—the authenticity of implementation.
Whitney B. Curry, Symeon Dagkas and Marcia Wilson
The Newman’s Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention aspires to increase sport and physical activity (PA) participation among young people in the United Kingdom. The aims of this article are to report on a summative process evaluation of the NECaSP and make recommendations for future interventions.
Seventeen schools provided data from students aged 11 to 13 years (n = 1226), parents (n = 192), and teachers (n = 14) via direct observation and questionnaires. Means, SDs, and percentages were calculated for sociodemographic data. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and main themes identified.
Findings indicate further administrative, educational, and financial support will help facilitate the success of the program in improving PA outcomes for young people and of other similar intervention programs globally. Data highlighted the need to engage parents to increase the likelihood of intervention success.
One main strength of this study is the mixed-methods nature of the process evaluation. It is recommended that future school-based interventions that bridge sports clubs and formal curriculum provision should consider a broader approach to the delivery of programs throughout the academic year, school week, and school day. Finally, changes in the school curriculum can be successful once all parties are involved (community, school, families).
Valter C. Barbosa Filho, Kelly Samara da Silva, Jorge Mota, Carmem Beck and Adair da Silva Lopes
Promoting physical activity (PA) in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health topic as well as a challenge for practice. This study aimed to assess the effect of a school-based intervention on different PA-related variables among students.
This cluster-randomized-controlled trial included 548 students in the intervention group and 537 in the control group (11–18 years-old) from 6 schools in neighborhoods with low Human Development Index (0.170–0.491) in Fortaleza, Brazil. The intervention included strategies focused on training teachers, opportunities for PA in the school environment and health education. Variables measured at baseline and again at the 4-months follow-up included the weekly time in different types of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), preference for PA during leisure-time, PA behavioral change stage and active commuting to school. Generalized linear models and binary logistic regressions were used.
An intervention effect was found by increasing the weekly time in MVPA (effect size = 0.17), popular games (effect size = 0.35), and the amount of PA per week (effect size = 0.27) among students (all P < .05).
The intervention was effective in promoting improvements in some PA outcomes, but the changes were not sufficient to increase the proportion of those meeting PA recommendations.