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Danielle Symons Downs, Guy C. LeMasurier and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Research examining women’s pregnancy physical activity (PA) behaviors with objective measures is scant. Therefore, 2 studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of pregnant women wearing pedometers and to examine women’s self-reported and objectively measured PA behaviors.

Methods:

Participants were pregnant women (Study 1 N = 50, Study 2 N = 30) who completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and wore a Yamax pedometer for 3 consecutive days during free living at 20- and 32-weeks gestation.

Results:

As predicted in Study 1, we found (a) 100% participant agreement in wearing the pedometer and (b) LTEQ min and pedometer-determined indices classified 67% to 86% of the participants as insufficiently active at 20-weeks gestation. In Study 2, as hypothesized, (a) mean steps/d, LTEQ total, strenuous, and mild min of PA were positively associated at 20- and 32-weeks gestation; (b) mean steps/d and LTEQ strenuous min significantly declined from 20- to 32-weeks gestation; and (c) more women were classified as sedentary and low active at 32-weeks (73%) compared with 20-weeks gestation (50%).

Conclusions:

These findings are consistent with previous epidemiological evidence documenting the decline in women’s PA behaviors across the trimesters. They also illustrate that pedometer-determined indices might be a useful tool facilitating PA adoption and maintenance during pregnancy.

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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Jordana Dahmen, Nigel Campbell and Christopher P. Connolly

Smith et al. ( 2012 ) found that an upper-arm worn PA monitor overestimated energy expenditure during level walking and household activities in second trimester, but this study did not examine accuracy for step counting or compare accuracy across pregnancy trimesters. A final study by Conway et

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Estelle D. Watson, Mireille N. M. Van Poppel, Rachel A. Jones, Shane A Norris and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Background:

Although physical activity during pregnancy may be beneficial, the prenatal period is a vulnerable time for decreasing physical activity levels and increasing sedentary time.

Methods:

This longitudinal cohort study measured physical activity using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in singleton, pregnant women in the second (14–18 wk gestation; n = 332) and third trimester (29–33 wk; n = 256).

Results:

There was a significant decrease in total MVPA (MET mins/wk) between the second and third trimester (P = .01). The majority of physical activity time was spent in walking for transport (80%), and less than 2% in recreational activities. In both trimesters, being married was inversely associated with walking for transport (second trimester: β = –0.12 95% CI = –0.31 to –0.02, third trimester: β = –0.17 95% CI = –0.47 to –0.07) and owning a car was positively associated with recreational physical activity (second trimester: β = 0.16 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.32, third trimester: β = 0.17 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.27). The women spent an average of 5 hours per day sitting.

Conclusions:

The low and declining levels of physical activity during pregnancy in this population are a concern. Interventions that include lifestyle education and provision of accessible recreational physical activity programs for pregnant women are needed.

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Maureen I. Ogamba, Kari L. Loverro, Natalie M. Laudicina, Simone V. Gill and Cara L. Lewis

During pregnancy, the female body experiences structural changes, such as weight gain. As pregnancy advances, most of the additional mass is concentrated anteriorly on the lower trunk. The purpose of this study is to analyze kinematic and kinetic changes when load is added anteriorly to the trunk, simulating a physical change experienced during pregnancy. Twenty healthy females walked on a treadmill while wearing a custom made pseudo-pregnancy sac (1 kg) under 3 load conditions: sac-only condition, 10-lb condition (4.535 kg added anteriorly), and 20-lb condition (9.07 kg added anteriorly), used to simulate pregnancy in the second trimester and at full-term pregnancy, respectively. The increase in anterior mass resulted in kinematic changes at the knee, hip, pelvis, and trunk in the sagittal and frontal planes. In addition, ankle, knee, and hip joint moments normalized to baseline mass increased with increased load; however, these moments decreased when normalized to total mass. These kinematic and kinetic changes may suggest that women modify gait biomechanics to reduce the effect of added load. Furthermore, the increase in joint moments increases stress on the musculoskeletal system and may contribute to musculoskeletal pain.

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac and Semra Topuz

25.95 ± 3.86 kg/m 2 . Of the 151 pregnant women, low back pain was determined in 56 (37.1%), varicose veins in 13 (8.6%), lower extremity edema in 13 (8.6%), urinary incontinence in 9 (6%), and smoking in 1 (0.7%). The stage of pregnancy was the first trimester in 17 (11.3%), the second trimester in

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

changes experienced in the later part of the second trimester, but plateauing, and even in some cases trending toward improvement before birth. 6 The goals of this current research were to determine how body anthropometry changes during pregnancy and to determine the relationship between anthropometric

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Lindsey M. Russo, Megan W. Harvey, Penelope Pekow and Lisa Chasan-Taber

.43–0.97), while total physical activity in the first and second trimester were not associated with odds of cesarean delivery. Among participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, Owe et al 17 found that the largest risk reduction for acute cesarean delivery were experienced among women who

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

the first 3 months, the main part of the sessions performed by participants in group A focused on the stimulation of cognitive function, whereas the workout for participants in group B consisted of fitness improvement exercises. The content sequence was reversed during the second trimester: group A