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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines, and Chris Hatton

disability, with most children with intellectual disability taking part in low-intensity sport. 27 In this paper, we present the results of a secondary analysis of a large-scale survey, which includes information relating to participation in sport/exercise by adolescents and young adults with and without

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Byron Lai, Katie Cederberg, Kerri A. Vanderbom, C. Scott Bickel, James H. Rimmer, and Robert W. Motl

disability subgroups? For example, exercise guidelines typically include only individuals with mild or moderate forms of relapsing-remitting MS ( Latimer-Cheung et al., 2013 ). To address these questions, this study involved a secondary analysis of exercise interventions that were retrieved for a prior

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Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier, and Ben J. Smith

distribution among Nepalese adults aged 40–69 years. Methods Study Design and Sampling This is the secondary analysis of the data from the WHO STEPS survey in Nepal, 2013. STEPS is a cross-sectional survey carried out to estimate the population-level prevalence of major noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk

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Pablo Fanlo-Mazas, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Alazne Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, Carlos López-de-Celis, César Hidalgo-García, Jacobo Rodríguez-Sanz, and María Orosia Lucha-López

presented in this article (pressure pain threshold, muscle length, and patient satisfaction) represent a secondary analysis of a single-group, pretest–posttest clinical trial. The recruitment methods and description of the trial have already been published. 26 The clinical research ethics committee of

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, Tracy L. Washington, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Richard P. Troiano


The 2003 Bureau of Labor Statistics American Time Use Survey (ATUS) contains 438 distinct primary activity variables that can be analyzed with regard to how time is spent by Americans. The Compendium of Physical Activities is used to code physical activities derived from various surveys, logs, diaries, etc to facilitate comparison of coded intensity levels across studies.


This article describes the methods, challenges, and rationale for linking Compendium estimates of physical activity intensity (METs, metabolic equivalents) with all activities reported in the 2003 ATUS.


The assigned ATUS intensity levels are not intended to compute the energy costs of physical activity in individuals. Instead, they are intended to be used to identify time spent in activities broadly classified by type and intensity. This function will complement public health surveillance systems and aid in policy and health-promotion activities. For example, at least one of the future projects of this process is the descriptive epidemiology of time spent in common physical activity intensity categories.


The process of metabolic coding of the ATUS by linking it with the Compendium of Physical Activities can make important contributions to our understanding of American’s time spent in health-related physical activity.

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Quinn Malone, Steven Passmore, and Michele Maiers

, 2007 ), whereas those with only back pain represent 20–35% of the population ( Hartvigsen et al., 2003 ; Macfarlane et al., 2011 ; Schopflocher et al., 2011 ; Strine & Hootman, 2007 ). This study was a secondary analysis of data garnered from a clinical trial considering the effects of spinal

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Samuel C. Fischer, Darren Q. Calley, and John H. Hollman

/or function? Summary of Search Strategy, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings • The literature search yielded 3 total studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria: 1 randomized control trial (RCT), 1 secondary analysis of a randomized control trial, and 1 cohort study. • Exercise programs that

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Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter, and John J. Durocher

comparing chronic standing desk users and chronic seated desk users did not identify any differences in cfPWV, crPWV, or lPWV. In addition, secondary analysis of traditional factors of age and aerobic fitness revealed significant differences in cfPWV in seated and standing desk participants. Chronic

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken, and Brendan Egan

). A secondary analysis by low ( n  = 10; <40 mg/day; 22 ± 12 mg/day) and moderate/high ( n  = 6; >130 mg/day; 231 ± 88 mg/day) habitual caffeine consumption was performed. Two participants whose habitual caffeine intake fell between the <40 and >130 mg/day cutoffs were removed prior to the secondary

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Angus M. Hunter, and Stuart D.R. Galloway

. Specifically, secondary analysis of an ERS database was used to (1) profile participants’ nonuptake of ERS; (2) describe any differences between nonattenders and attenders; and (3) report session count of attenders, exploring relationships between attender demographics and session count. Methods Study Design