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Riana R. Pryor, Summer Runestad, Bethany A. Chong Gum, Nathan J. Fuller, Moon Kang and Jennifer J. Beck

Key Points ▸ Nearly two-thirds of California secondary schools do not hire a certified athletic trainer. ▸ Fewer California secondary schools hire an athletic trainer compared to the nationwide average. ▸ Many schools hired nonmedical personnel to provide sports medicine services to student

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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Gary W. Cohen, Melissa C. Kay, Dayna K. Tierney and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

environment, family members should monitor symptoms, including sleep-related symptoms, as well as impose prescribed rest and recovery recommendations. 12 , 13 Comprehensive concussion assessment and management in the secondary school setting not only necessitates athletic trainers to establish relationships

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Brendan T. O’ Keeffe, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kwok Ng and Alan E. Donnelly

secondary school settings. Considering the aforementioned gaps in the current evidence base, the aim of this study was to examine HRPF monitoring practices in secondary-school-based physical education programs among a nationally representative sample of teachers in the Republic of Ireland. Methods Survey

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

because it is required in school curriculums for nearly all children and adolescents ( Kahn et al., 2002 ) and is typically taught by PE professionals ( Pate et al., 2006 ). School PE is compulsory for most elementary and secondary school students in many countries and regions ( Curriculum Development

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Rafael Burgueño, José Macarro-Moreno, Isabel Sánchez-Gallardo, María-Jesús Lirola and Jesús Medina-Casaubón

secondary school students in PE. Self-determination theory, unlike the classical psychological theories, proposes a multidimensional perspective for motivation, which considers not only the quantity or intensity of motivation, but also the quality or type of motivation ( Ryan & Deci, 2017 , 2019

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

.8 Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; N/A, not applicable. a 3 or more days per week of vigorous physical activity of 20 or more minutes per day. b 0 days per week of vigorous physical activity of 20 or more minutes per day. c ≥85th percentile of height for weight. Among students attending secondary schools in

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Shan-Hui (Tiffany) Hsu and Rose Chepyator-Thomson

The purpose of the study focused on how textbook authors in secondary school physical education used multicultural education concepts, using Banks’ (2006a) dimensions and Sleeter and Grant’s (1999) approaches. Data collection methods included examination of textbooks’ chapters, indexes, and references in five textbooks. Constant comparison method was used in data analysis. The findings of the study follow: 1) Most textbook authors treated multicultural education as an additive concept in the curriculum section and emphasized issues of gender and disability, 2) all of the textbook authors adopted either Banks’ or Sleeter and Grant’s multicultural education approaches, (3) Harrison, Blakemore, and Buck addressed issues of gender, disability and ethnicity in content objectives, and 4) Metzler addressed issues of gender and disability with Banks’ content integration and equity-based pedagogy concepts. An implication concerns incorporation of multicultural education concepts in curriculum and pedagogy in preparation of preservice teachers in secondary school physical education.

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Robert Vallandingham, Zachary Winkelmann, Lindsey Eberman and Kenneth Games

common orthopedic injuries. 1 Specifically in the secondary school setting, epidemiological studies have accounted ankle sprains for 15–20% of all sport-related injuries. 2 – 4 Additionally, the ankle was the region that had the highest reported encounters related to prevention, taping, treatment, and

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Bik C. Chow, Thomas L. McKenzie and Lobo Louie

Physical activity engagement during physical education is important for many reasons, including developing physical fitness and movement skills and promoting health. Much more is known about physical activity in elementary than secondary schools. We examined physical activity and how it was influenced by instructor-related and environmental characteristics during 238 lessons taught by 65 physical education specialists in 30 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Trained observers used SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) in randomly selected grade 7–12 classes over a 6-month period. Results showed students engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) about 35% of lesson time, a level similar to that found in U.S. elementary schools and short of the U.S. Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% engagement time. Multiple regression analyses found that six potentially modifiable variables contributed to 35% of the variability in lesson MVPA percent.

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David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie


Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.


We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.


Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).


Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.