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Myungjin Jung, Heontae Kim, Seungho Ryu, and Minsoo Kang

representative of the US population, and all estimates are arithmetic means. Total Physical Activity Table  2 displays the secular trends in weighted mean hours of total physical activity per week for the overall sample and for different population groups, respectively, across the NHANES cycles from 2009 to

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Anders Raustorp and Yvonne Ekroth

Background:

To explore the secular trends (time change) of pedometer-determined physical activity (steps per day) in Swedish young adolescents 13 to 14 years of age from 2000 to 2008.

Methods:

The study was analyzed between 2 cross-sectional cohorts carried out in October 2000 (235, 111 girls) and October 2008 (186, 107 girls) in the same school, using identical procedures. Data of mean steps per day were collected during 4 consecutive weekdays (sealed pedometer Yamax SW-200 Tokyo, Japan) and in addition height and weight were measured.

Results:

When comparing cohort 2000 with cohort 2008 no significant difference in physical activity were found neither among girls (12,989 vs 13,338 [t = −0.98, P < .325]) nor boys (15,623 vs 15,174 [t= 0.78, P = .436]). The share of girls and boys meeting weight control recommendations was none significantly higher in 2008 both among girls (68% versus 62%) and among boys (69% versus 65%).

Conclusion:

There was no significant difference of young adolescents’ physical activity during school weekdays in 2008 compared with 2000. This stabilized physical activity level, in an internationally comparison regarded as high, is promising. Enhanced focus on physical activity in society and at school might have influenced the result.

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Risto Telama, Lauri Laakso, Heimo Nupponen, Arja Rimpelä, and Lasse Pere

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between youth physical activity and family socioeconomic status (FSES) over 28 years. As a part of the Finnish Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey a random sample of 12-, 15- and 18-year-old boys and girls participated in a nation-wide survey by answering questions every second year, from 1977 to 2005, on, among other things, leisure time physical activity and sport participation. Father’s education represented FSES. The results showed that there were no significant or only small differences between the high and low FSES groups in unorganised physical activity during the study period. Participation in physical activities organized by the school was not associated with FSES. Participation in youth sport organized by sport clubs was strongly associated with FSES in both sexes. The young people in the high FSES groups participated more than those in the low FSES groups. It was concluded that considerable inequality exists in youth sport participation, that this inequality has been growing during the last decade, and that it is bigger among girls than among boys.

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Magdalena Żegleń, Łukasz Kryst, Małgorzata Kowal, and Agnieszka Woronkowicz

motivate them to consistently exert maximal effort. 9 , 10 Moreover, secular trends observed in this age group often differ, either in size or direction, from those noted in older children and adolescents. 11 Nevertheless, regardless of the described difficulties, as stated before, the assessment of

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Anita Hurtig Wennlöf, Agneta Yngve, and Michael Sjöström

Background:

Steadily declining physical activity, especially among children, and the possible adverse health outcomes such behavior could precede, is a general concern. We evaluated whether a presumed decrease in physical activity has been accompanied with a decrease in aerobic fitness of Swedish children.

Methods:

A maximum cycle ergometer test was performed in 935 children age 9 and 15 y, and the results were compared with previously reported data.

Results:

Estimated peak oxygen uptake (mL × min-1 × kg-1) in 9-y-old subjects was 37.3 in girls and 42.8 in boys; and in 15-y-olds, 40.4 in girls and 51.5 in boys. In the 9-y-olds, aerobic fitness remained lower in the current study compared to earlier data, but in the 15-y-olds the result did not differ from the 1952 data after adjustment for methodological differences.

Conclusion:

Our results suggest a change towards decreased aerobic fitness in 9-y-old, but not in 15-y-old, Swedish children during a 50-y time span.

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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Janet E. Fulton, and Laura Kann

Background:

To help inform policies and programs, a need exists to understand the extent to which Healthy People 2010 objectives for physical activity, physical education (PE), and television (TV) viewing among adolescents are being achieved.

Methods:

As part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 5 national school-based surveys were conducted biennially from 1999 through 2007. Each survey used a 3-stage cross-sectional sample of students in grades 9 to 12 and provided self-reported data from approximately 14,000 students. Logistic regression models that controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade were used to analyze secular trends.

Results:

During 1999 to 2007, prevalence estimates for regular participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity, participation in daily PE classes, and being physically active in PE classes did not change significantly among female, male, white, black, or Hispanic students. In contrast, the prevalence of TV viewing for 2 or fewer hours on a school day increased significantly among female, male, white, black, and Hispanic students and among students in every grade except 12th grade.

Conclusions:

Among US adolescents, no significant progress has been made toward increasing participation in physical activity or school PE classes; however, improvements have been made in reducing TV viewing time.

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Arunas Emeljanovas, Brigita Mieziene, Rita Gruodyte-Raciene, Saulius Sukys, Renata Rutkauskaite, Laima Trinkuniene, Natalija Fatkulina, and Inga Gerulskiene

, Sigmundova D , et al . Secular trends in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in 32 countries from 2002 to 2010: a cross-national perspective . Eur J Public Health, 2015 ; 25 ( suppl 2 ): 37 – 40 . doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckv024 10.1093/eurpub/ckv024 2. Venckunas T , Emeljanovas A , Mieziene B

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Jan Seghers, Stijn De Baere, Maïté Verloigne, and Greet Cardon

grade two out of the 10 indicators. More specific, active play seems to be a neglected PA behaviour in adolescents when developing questionnaires and the physical fitness indicator could not be graded because of a lack of recent data. To investigate secular trends in physical fitness and to analyse the

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Sylwia Bartkowiak, Jan M. Konarski, Ryszard Strzelczyk, Jarosław Janowski, Małgorzata Karpowicz, and Robert M. Malina

. Population sizes varied between 4642 and 9850 in 1986, and the region had many state-owned and cooperative farms. 32 According to local records, none of the communities was involved in previous secular trend research. School youth in the 10 communities were subsequently surveyed in 1996, 2006, and 2016. The