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David Russell and Jo-Ana D. Chase

Sedentary behaviors (SB) include sitting, reclining, or lying activities that are characterized by an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 metabolic equivalent ( Matthews et al., 2008 ; Owen, Healy, Matthews, & Dunstan, 2010 ; Pate, O’neill, & Lobelo, 2008 ; Tremblay et al., 2017 ). Older adults are the

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Kerem Shuval, Liora Sahar, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Gregory Knell, Galit Weinstein, Tal Gafni Gal, Felipe Lobelo and Loretta DiPietro

In the United States, adults are sedentary approximately 8 hours daily during waking hours, based on accelerometry. 1 Sedentary behavior, which is defined as sitting or reclining during waking hours with an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 metabolic equivalent of task (MET), 2 has been linked to

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Saori I. Braun, Youngdeok Kim, Amy E. Jetton, Minsoo Kang and Don W. Morgan

The purpose of this study was to determine if bone health at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) can be predicted from objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity data in postmenopausal women. Waist-mounted ActiGraph GT1M and GT3X devices were used to quantify levels of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous intensity behavior during a 7-day period in 44 older females. Bone health (normal and osteopenia/osteoporosis) of FN and LS was derived from T scores generated using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that sedentary time and number of breaks in sedentary behavior were significant predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the FN, but not at the LS. Adherence to physical activity guidelines was not a significant predictor of bone health at the FN or LS. Our findings suggest that more frequent interruptions in sedentary behavior are associated with improved bone health in postmenopausal women.

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Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross

has emerged as a risk factor for early mortality and seems to have deleterious health effects. 15 , 16 Sedentary behaviors (SBs) include sitting during commuting, at the workplace, in the domestic environment, and during leisure time. A total of 41.3% of the Spanish population, 17 42% of Europeans

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Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang

Sedentary behavior, defined as “any waking behavior characterized by energy expenditure ≤ 1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture,” 1 is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, 2 , 3 cardiovascular disease, 4 – 7 type 2 diabetes, 8 , 9 hypertension, 10 and

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Objective:

High family functioning is associated with reduced depression symptoms, better academic achievement, less disordered eating, and better metabolic control among youth. However, we know very little about the role of family functioning on physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth, which was the purpose of this study.

Methods:

Data from the 2003 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used. A total of 61,226 parents/guardians from the 2003 cycle and 40,446 parents/guardians from the 2011–2012 cycle (total n = 101,672) across all 50 states and the District of Columbia were examined. Parents answered questions related to family functioning and their child’s (age 6–17 yrs) physical activity and sedentary behavior.

Results:

Results were the same across both cycles; after adjustments, youth engaged in less physical activity if the family had worse family functioning (β = −0.06, P < .001). Similarly, youth engaged in more sedentary behavior if the family had worse family functioning (β = 0.05, P < .001).

Conclusion:

This research suggests that youth are more active and engage in less sedentary behavior if their family has greater family functioning.

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Joshua A. Nicholas, Geraldine Lo Siou, Brigid M. Lynch, Paula J. Robson, Christine M. Friedenreich and Ilona Csizmadi

Background:

Sedentary behavior has been proposed as a risk factor for obesity that is distinct from physical inactivity. This study aimed to examine the association between occupational sedentary behavior and obesity, and to determine if this association is independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA).

Methods:

Fully employed participants enrolled between 2001 and 2008 to Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, were studied (n = 12,409). Associations between occupational sedentary behavior and waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were examined using multiple binary and multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

In men, a positive association was observed between daily occupational sedentary hours and WC, WHR, BMI, and with high risk profiles that incorporated both BMI and WC (P < .01). Controlling for vigorous-intensity LTPA in all models strengthened associations between sedentary behavior and measures of obesity. In contrast, inverse associations were observed for occupational sedentary hours and WHR for women (P < .05).

Conclusions:

In fully employed men, occupational sedentary behavior was positively associated with obesity risk that was not attenuated by physical activity. In women, an increase in obesity risk was not observed with sedentary behavior. Gender differences in the health effects of sedentary behavior require further study.

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Laura Basterfield, Ashley J. Adamson, Mark S. Pearce and John J. Reilly

Background:

Accelerometry is rapidly becoming the instrument of choice for measuring physical activity in children. However, as limited data exist on the minimum number of days accelerometry required to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity, we aimed to quantify the number of days of recording required to estimate both habitual physical activity and habitual sedentary behavior in primary school children.

Methods:

We measured physical activity and sedentary behavior over 7 days in 291 6- to 8-year-olds using Actigraph accelerometers. Between-day intraclass reliability coefficients were calculated and averaged across all combinations of days.

Results:

Although reliability increased with time, 3 days of recording provided reliabilities for volume of activity, moderate-vigorous intensity activity, and sedentary behavior of 68%, 71%, and 73%, respectively.

Conclusions:

For our sample and setting, 3 days accelerometry provided reliable estimates of the main constructs of physical activity and sedentary behavior.

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Chuck E. Matthews, S. Ghazaleh Dashti, Aiden R. Doherty, Audrey Bergouignan, Eline H. van Roekel, David W. Dunstan, Nicholas J. Wareham, Thomas E. Yates, Katrien Wijndaele and Brigid M. Lynch

Sedentary behaviors—seated or reclining postures done while awake and that require little energy expenditure (ie, ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents 1 )—are ubiquitous in modern societies. Accelerometer-based estimates indicate that adults in high-income countries spend on average 8 to 10 hours per day

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Sheri J. Hartman, Catherine R. Marinac, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Suneeta Godbole, Ruth E. Patterson, Brittany Morey and Dorothy D. Sears

, 6 – 8 more recent evidence points to sedentary behavior as a novel yet understudied predictor of health outcomes—even after adjusting for physical activity. 9 Sedentary activities are commonly defined as those with a low energy expenditure (<1.5 metabolic equivalents) and performed in a sitting or