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David Russell and Jo-Ana D. Chase

Sedentary behaviors (SB) include sitting, reclining, or lying activities that are characterized by an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 metabolic equivalent ( Matthews et al., 2008 ; Owen, Healy, Matthews, & Dunstan, 2010 ; Pate, O’neill, & Lobelo, 2008 ; Tremblay et al., 2017 ). Older adults are the

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Saori I. Braun, Youngdeok Kim, Amy E. Jetton, Minsoo Kang and Don W. Morgan

The purpose of this study was to determine if bone health at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) can be predicted from objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity data in postmenopausal women. Waist-mounted ActiGraph GT1M and GT3X devices were used to quantify levels of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous intensity behavior during a 7-day period in 44 older females. Bone health (normal and osteopenia/osteoporosis) of FN and LS was derived from T scores generated using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that sedentary time and number of breaks in sedentary behavior were significant predictors of osteopenia/osteoporosis at the FN, but not at the LS. Adherence to physical activity guidelines was not a significant predictor of bone health at the FN or LS. Our findings suggest that more frequent interruptions in sedentary behavior are associated with improved bone health in postmenopausal women.

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Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang

Sedentary behavior, defined as “any waking behavior characterized by energy expenditure ≤ 1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture,” 1 is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, 2 , 3 cardiovascular disease, 4 – 7 type 2 diabetes, 8 , 9 hypertension, 10 and

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Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross

has emerged as a risk factor for early mortality and seems to have deleterious health effects. 15 , 16 Sedentary behaviors (SBs) include sitting during commuting, at the workplace, in the domestic environment, and during leisure time. A total of 41.3% of the Spanish population, 17 42% of Europeans

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Objective:

High family functioning is associated with reduced depression symptoms, better academic achievement, less disordered eating, and better metabolic control among youth. However, we know very little about the role of family functioning on physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth, which was the purpose of this study.

Methods:

Data from the 2003 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used. A total of 61,226 parents/guardians from the 2003 cycle and 40,446 parents/guardians from the 2011–2012 cycle (total n = 101,672) across all 50 states and the District of Columbia were examined. Parents answered questions related to family functioning and their child’s (age 6–17 yrs) physical activity and sedentary behavior.

Results:

Results were the same across both cycles; after adjustments, youth engaged in less physical activity if the family had worse family functioning (β = −0.06, P < .001). Similarly, youth engaged in more sedentary behavior if the family had worse family functioning (β = 0.05, P < .001).

Conclusion:

This research suggests that youth are more active and engage in less sedentary behavior if their family has greater family functioning.

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Sheri J. Hartman, Catherine R. Marinac, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Suneeta Godbole, Ruth E. Patterson, Brittany Morey and Dorothy D. Sears

, 6 – 8 more recent evidence points to sedentary behavior as a novel yet understudied predictor of health outcomes—even after adjusting for physical activity. 9 Sedentary activities are commonly defined as those with a low energy expenditure (<1.5 metabolic equivalents) and performed in a sitting or

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Laura Basterfield, Ashley J. Adamson, Mark S. Pearce and John J. Reilly

Background:

Accelerometry is rapidly becoming the instrument of choice for measuring physical activity in children. However, as limited data exist on the minimum number of days accelerometry required to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity, we aimed to quantify the number of days of recording required to estimate both habitual physical activity and habitual sedentary behavior in primary school children.

Methods:

We measured physical activity and sedentary behavior over 7 days in 291 6- to 8-year-olds using Actigraph accelerometers. Between-day intraclass reliability coefficients were calculated and averaged across all combinations of days.

Results:

Although reliability increased with time, 3 days of recording provided reliabilities for volume of activity, moderate-vigorous intensity activity, and sedentary behavior of 68%, 71%, and 73%, respectively.

Conclusions:

For our sample and setting, 3 days accelerometry provided reliable estimates of the main constructs of physical activity and sedentary behavior.

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

Sedentary behavior is defined as “any waking behavior characterized by an energy expenditure of ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents while in a sitting or reclining position”. 1 The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that children over 2 years of age use screen media for no more than 2 hours

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Joshua A. Nicholas, Geraldine Lo Siou, Brigid M. Lynch, Paula J. Robson, Christine M. Friedenreich and Ilona Csizmadi

Background:

Sedentary behavior has been proposed as a risk factor for obesity that is distinct from physical inactivity. This study aimed to examine the association between occupational sedentary behavior and obesity, and to determine if this association is independent of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA).

Methods:

Fully employed participants enrolled between 2001 and 2008 to Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a prospective cohort study in Alberta, Canada, were studied (n = 12,409). Associations between occupational sedentary behavior and waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were examined using multiple binary and multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

In men, a positive association was observed between daily occupational sedentary hours and WC, WHR, BMI, and with high risk profiles that incorporated both BMI and WC (P < .01). Controlling for vigorous-intensity LTPA in all models strengthened associations between sedentary behavior and measures of obesity. In contrast, inverse associations were observed for occupational sedentary hours and WHR for women (P < .05).

Conclusions:

In fully employed men, occupational sedentary behavior was positively associated with obesity risk that was not attenuated by physical activity. In women, an increase in obesity risk was not observed with sedentary behavior. Gender differences in the health effects of sedentary behavior require further study.

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Eimear Keane, Xia Li, Janas M. Harrington, Anthony P. Fitzgerald, Ivan J. Perry and Patricia M. Kearney

Purpose:

Globally, public health policies are targeting modifiable lifestyle behaviors. We explore the independent association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior on the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.

Method:

A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–11 years (N = 826). Objective body mass index was used to classify children as normal weight or overweight/obese. Children wore wrist-worn Geneactiv accelerometers for 7-days and thresholds were applied to categorize MVPA and sedentary time. Screen time (ST) was parent reported. Poisson regression examined the independent association of (1) MVPA (2), objective sedentary time and (3) ST on the risk of overweight/obesity.

Results:

Overall, 23.7% (95% CI, 20.8–26.6%) of children were overweight/obese. On average, children spent 10.8% of waking time at MVPA and 61.3% sedentary. One-fifth (22.1%, 95% CI, 19.3–25.0%) of children achieved MVPA recommendations (≥ 60 min each day) and 17.5% (95% CI, 14.9–20.1%) met ST recommendations (<2 hr per day). Time spent at MVPA was inversely associated with the risk of overweight/obese independent of total sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary was not associated with overweight/obese independent of MVPA. ST was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obese independent of physical activity.

Conclusion:

Few schoolchildren met physical activity and screen time recommendations suggesting population based measures are needed.