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Abhinav Singh and Bharathi Purohit

Background:

Regular physical activity is well recognized as an important lifestyle behavior for the development and maintenance of individual and population health and well-being. This study was conducted to evaluate physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity among Indian dental health professionals.

Methods:

Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among 324 dental health care professionals. Metabolic equivalents (MET) were used to express the intensity of physical activities. Obesity was recorded corresponding to Body Mass Index. Individuals were considered in high risk group to develop obesity if energy expenditure was < 600 MET min/week.

Results:

Total physical activity measured in mean MET minutes per week was 625.6, 786.3, 296.5, and 296.5 for third year, final year, interns, and faculty, respectively (P ≤ .05). Obesity was observed in 22.4% of third-year students, 16.3% of final-year students, 20.4% of interns, and 40.8% of faculty members (P ≤ .001).

Conclusion:

The sedentary lifestyle of dental health care professionals is a major threat to the present and future health of the professionals by which the entire community could be prone to an epidemic of chronic disease.

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Tanya R. Berry

No research exists that examines attentional bias for exercise related stimuli, yet this is an important area as it is possible that nonexercisers are not paying attention to exercise related cues, thereby limiting the potential effectiveness of health promotion advertising. This research used a Stroop task to examine attentional bias for exercise and sedentary-lifestyle related stimuli. Experiment 1 included exercise related words and matched control words and revealed that exerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for exercise related words. Experiment 2 expanded on Experiment 1 by further including sedentary-lifestyle related words and matched control words. Results replicated the first study and further revealed that nonexerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for sedentary-lifestyle related words but not for exercise related words. Results are discussed in terms of attentional bias or the possibility of a threat-driven slowdown, and in relation to health promotion and exercise behavior.

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Adrienne Brown and Mohammad Siahpush

Background:

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of a number of diseases, prevents obesity, and has positive psychological effects. Approximately one-third of the Australian population has been reported as totally sedentary. We investigated socioeconomic predictors of being sedentary in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 8643 females and 7600 males who responded to the 2001 National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of being sedentary with a range of socioeconomic measures.

Results:

Adjusting for demographics, body-mass index, and smoking, we found that low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level, blue-collar occupation, low income and area social disadvantage, increased the probability that people were sedentary.

Conclusions:

This research highlights that targeting people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with strategies to increase participation in physical activity may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with being sedentary.

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Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Filipe Ferreira da Costa and Markus Vinicius Nahas

Background:

Our purpose was to examine the association of television viewing (hours/day), sedentary work (predominantly sitting at work), passive transportation to work (car or motorcycle), and the clustering of these behaviors (“sedentary lifestyle”), as well as leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI), with chronic diseases (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and clustering of chronic diseases) in Brazilian workers.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 24 Brazilian federal units (n = 47,477). A questionnaire was applied. Descriptive statistics, binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used.

Results:

Magnitude of association with chronic diseases varied greatly across domains and gender. Sedentariness at work was the most consistent behavior associated with chronic diseases, especially in men (ORhypertension = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20; ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.21–1.48; ORobesity = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.41; OR1chronic disease = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26; OR≥2chronic diseases = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.46–1.78) compared with women (ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.31; ORobesity = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.48). LTPI was associated with all diseases in men (except type 2 diabetes), but only with obesity in women.

Conclusion:

Adverse health consequences may be differently associated according to behavior domain and gender. Sedentary work and LTPI were consistently associated with chronic disease in Brazilian workers, especially in men.

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Melissa C. Kay, Dianna D. Carroll, Susan A. Carlson and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

To estimate the proportion of U.S. adults aware and knowledgeable of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

Methods:

Analysis is based on a cross-sectional national sample of adults in the 2009 (n = 4281) HealthStyles survey. We estimated the prevalence of adults who reported awareness of government physical activity guidelines and who were knowledgeable of the currently recommended moderate-intensity physical activity guideline (ie, 150 minutes per week) from the 2008 Guidelines.

Results:

In 2009, the percent of adults who reported being aware of government physical activity (PA) guidelines was 36.1%. The percent of adults knowledgeable of the moderate-intensity physical activity guideline was less than 1% (0.56%).

Conclusions:

Most U.S. adults lack sufficient awareness and knowledge of the 2008 Guidelines, putting them at risk for failure to meet them. The nation needs more effective communication strategies to translate and disseminate PA guidelines.

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Zewditu Demissie, Richard Lowry, Danice K. Eaton, Marci F. Hertz and Sarah M. Lee

Background:

This study investigated associations of violence-related behaviors with physical activity (PA)-related behaviors among U.S. high school students.

Methods:

Data from the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 9th–12th grade students, were analyzed. Sex-stratified, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between violence-related behaviors and being physically active for ≥ 60 minutes daily, sports participation, TV watching for ≥ 3 hours/day, and video game/computer use for ≥ 3 hours/day.

Results:

Among male students, at-school bullying victimization was negatively associated with daily PA (aOR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58–0.87) and sports participation; skipping school because of safety concerns was positively associated with video game/computer use (1.42; 1.01–2.00); and physical fighting was positively associated with daily PA. Among female students, atschool bullying victimization and skipping school because of safety concerns were both positively associated with video game/computer use (1.46; 1.19–1.79 and 1.60; 1.09–2.34, respectively), and physical fighting at school was negatively associated with sports participation and positively associated with TV watching.

Conclusions:

Bullying victimization emerged as a potentially important risk factor for insufficient PA. Schools should consider the role of violence in initiatives designed to promote PA.

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Sunday Azagba and Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

Background:

In spite of the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Canadian population. This paper examines leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPA) and its correlates among older Canadian adults.

Methods:

We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with 45,265 individuals aged 50–79 years. A logistic regression is estimated and separate regressions are performed for males and females.

Results:

About 50% of older Canadian adults are physically inactive. Higher odds of physical inactivity are found among current smokers (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.37–1.69), those who binge-drink (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11–1.39), visible minorities (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.39–1.85), immigrants (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.02–1.25), individuals with high perceived life stress (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.31–1.66). We also find lower odds of physical inactivity among: males (OR = 0.89, CI = 0.83 to 0.96), those with strong social interaction (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.66–0.77), with general life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.58–0.76) and individuals with more education. Similar results are obtained from separate regressions for males and females.

Conclusions:

Identifying the correlates of LTPA among older adults can inform useful intervention measures.

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Alexandra Valencia-Peris, José Devís-Devís, Xavier García-Massó, Jorge Lizandra, Esther Pérez-Gimeno and Carmen Peiró-Velert

Background:

Previous research shows contradictory findings on potential competing effects between sedentary screen media usage (SMU) and physical activity (PA). This study examined these effects on adolescent girls via self-organizing maps analysis focusing on 3 target profiles.

Methods:

A sample of 1,516 girls aged 12 to 18 years self-reported daily time engagement in PA (moderate and vigorous intensity) and in screen media activities (TV/video/DVD, computer, and videogames), separately and combined.

Results:

Topological interrelationships from the 13 emerging maps indicated a moderate competing effect between physically active and sedentary SMU patterns. Higher SES and overweight status were linked to either active or inactive behaviors. Three target clusters were explored in more detail. Cluster 1, named temperate-media actives, showed capabilities of being active while engaging in a moderate level of SMU (TV/video/DVD mainly). In Cluster 2, named prudent-media inactives, and Cluster 3, compulsive-media inactives, a competing effect between SMU and PA emerged, being sedentary SMU behaviors responsible for a low involvement in active pursuits.

Conclusions:

SMU and PA emerge as both related and independent behaviors in girls, resulting in a moderate competing effect. Findings support the case for recommending the timing of PA and SMU for recreational purposes considering different profiles, sociodemographic factors and types of SMU.

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Manon L. Dontje, Calum F. Leask, Juliet Harvey, Dawn A. Skelton and Sebastien F.M. Chastin

Older adults are recommended to reduce their sedentary time to promote healthy ageing. To develop effective interventions identifying when, why, and how older adults are able to change their sitting habits is important. The aim of this mixed-method study was to improve our understanding of reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior in older adults. Thirty older adults (74.0 [±5.3] years old, 73% women) were asked about their believed reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior, and about their actual reasons when looking at a personal storyboard with objective records of activPAL monitor data and time-lapse camera pictures showing all their periods of sedentary time in a day. The most often mentioned believed reason for remaining sedentary was television/radio (mentioned by 48.3%), while eating/drinking was most often mentioned as actual reason (96.6%). Only 17.2% believed that food/tea preparation was a reason to break up sitting, while this was an actual reason for 82.8% of the study sample. Results of this study show that there is a discrepancy between believed and actual reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior. These findings suggest developing interventions utilizing the actual reasons for breaking sedentary behavior to reduce sedentary time in older adults.

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Marquis Hawkins, Anne B. Newman, Magdalena Madero, Kushang V. Patel, Michael G. Shlipak, Jennifer Cooper, Kirsten L. Johansen, Sankar D. Navaneethan, Ronald I. Shorr, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Linda F Fried

Background:

Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults.

Methods:

The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report, and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function.

Results:

Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.52) compared with individuals who watched television <2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome.

Conclusions:

High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study.