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Abhinav Singh and Bharathi Purohit

Background:

Regular physical activity is well recognized as an important lifestyle behavior for the development and maintenance of individual and population health and well-being. This study was conducted to evaluate physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity among Indian dental health professionals.

Methods:

Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity among 324 dental health care professionals. Metabolic equivalents (MET) were used to express the intensity of physical activities. Obesity was recorded corresponding to Body Mass Index. Individuals were considered in high risk group to develop obesity if energy expenditure was < 600 MET min/week.

Results:

Total physical activity measured in mean MET minutes per week was 625.6, 786.3, 296.5, and 296.5 for third year, final year, interns, and faculty, respectively (P ≤ .05). Obesity was observed in 22.4% of third-year students, 16.3% of final-year students, 20.4% of interns, and 40.8% of faculty members (P ≤ .001).

Conclusion:

The sedentary lifestyle of dental health care professionals is a major threat to the present and future health of the professionals by which the entire community could be prone to an epidemic of chronic disease.

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Tanya R. Berry

No research exists that examines attentional bias for exercise related stimuli, yet this is an important area as it is possible that nonexercisers are not paying attention to exercise related cues, thereby limiting the potential effectiveness of health promotion advertising. This research used a Stroop task to examine attentional bias for exercise and sedentary-lifestyle related stimuli. Experiment 1 included exercise related words and matched control words and revealed that exerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for exercise related words. Experiment 2 expanded on Experiment 1 by further including sedentary-lifestyle related words and matched control words. Results replicated the first study and further revealed that nonexerciser schematics showed delayed response latencies for sedentary-lifestyle related words but not for exercise related words. Results are discussed in terms of attentional bias or the possibility of a threat-driven slowdown, and in relation to health promotion and exercise behavior.

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Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovâni F. Del Duca, Filipe Ferreira da Costa, and Markus Vinicius Nahas

Background:

Our purpose was to examine the association of television viewing (hours/day), sedentary work (predominantly sitting at work), passive transportation to work (car or motorcycle), and the clustering of these behaviors (“sedentary lifestyle”), as well as leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI), with chronic diseases (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and clustering of chronic diseases) in Brazilian workers.

Methods:

Cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in 24 Brazilian federal units (n = 47,477). A questionnaire was applied. Descriptive statistics, binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used.

Results:

Magnitude of association with chronic diseases varied greatly across domains and gender. Sedentariness at work was the most consistent behavior associated with chronic diseases, especially in men (ORhypertension = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.20; ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.21–1.48; ORobesity = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15–1.41; OR1chronic disease = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26; OR≥2chronic diseases = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.46–1.78) compared with women (ORhypercholesterolemia = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.31; ORobesity = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.48). LTPI was associated with all diseases in men (except type 2 diabetes), but only with obesity in women.

Conclusion:

Adverse health consequences may be differently associated according to behavior domain and gender. Sedentary work and LTPI were consistently associated with chronic disease in Brazilian workers, especially in men.

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Jia-Pei Hong, I-Min Lee, Sarinnapha M. Vasunilashorn, Heather J. Baer, Prangthip Charoenpong, and Chih-Hong Lee

vitamin D levels was significant in participants who had more than 8 hours of daily ST, which suggest that for women who had sedentary lifestyles, incorporating any amount of TPA into daily life, even if it does not meet the PAGs, might be an important factor for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency. If

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Adrienne Brown and Mohammad Siahpush

Background:

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of a number of diseases, prevents obesity, and has positive psychological effects. Approximately one-third of the Australian population has been reported as totally sedentary. We investigated socioeconomic predictors of being sedentary in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 8643 females and 7600 males who responded to the 2001 National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of being sedentary with a range of socioeconomic measures.

Results:

Adjusting for demographics, body-mass index, and smoking, we found that low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level, blue-collar occupation, low income and area social disadvantage, increased the probability that people were sedentary.

Conclusions:

This research highlights that targeting people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with strategies to increase participation in physical activity may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with being sedentary.

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Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto, and Giovana Z. Mazo

the study. The χ 2 test revealed an association between the presence of UUI and MUI and the groups according to PA level. Sedentary lifestyle (zero METs/min per week) is at risk of developing UUI and MUI. Virtuoso and Mazo ( 2013 ) 15.5% Highly active (OR = 0.288; 95% CI [0.111, 0.749]) and low

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Methods: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire. Data on covariables (including chronological age, educational status, skin color, sodium consumption, sugar consumption, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity) were also self-reported. Logistic regression models and population attributable fractions were used for the etiological analyses. Results: The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of >4 hours per day of TV viewing was 12.7% (12.0–13.4) in men and 17.5% (16.8–18.3) in women. Men and women being younger or older, moderately educated, living alone, smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol were associated with higher reported TV viewing time. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) revealed that >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes [male: 1.64 (1.23–2.17) and female: 1.33 (1.09–1.63)], hypertension [male: 1.36 (1.14–1.63) and female: 1.20 (1.05–1.37)], and heart disease [male: 1.96 (1.43–2.69) and female: 1.30 (1.00–1.68)]. Exceeding 4 hours per day of TV viewing was responsible for 6.8% of type 2 diabetes, 3.7% of hypertension, and 7.5% of heart disease cases. Conclusions: Independent of covariates, >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. High volumes of TV viewing are prevalent and appear to contribute to chronic disease burden.

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Marquis Hawkins, Anne B. Newman, Magdalena Madero, Kushang V. Patel, Michael G. Shlipak, Jennifer Cooper, Kirsten L. Johansen, Sankar D. Navaneethan, Ronald I. Shorr, Eleanor M. Simonsick, and Linda F Fried

Background:

Physical activity (PA) may play a role in preserving kidney health. The purpose of this study was to determine if PA and sedentary behavior are associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and change in kidney function in older adults.

Methods:

The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort of 3075 well-functioning older adults. PA and television watching was measured by self-report, and serum cystatin C was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. Rapid kidney function decline was defined as an annual loss in eGFR of >3ml/min/1.73m2. Discrete survival analysis was used to determine if baseline PA and television watching were related to 10-year cumulative incidence of CKD and rapid decline in kidney function.

Results:

Individuals who reported watching television >3 hours/day had a higher risk of incident CKD (HR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65) and experiencing a rapid decline in kidney function (HR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.52) compared with individuals who watched television <2 hours/day. PA was not related to either outcome.

Conclusions:

High levels of television watching are associated with declining kidney function; the mechanisms that underlie this association need further study.

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Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire, and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the psychological factors that might predict the sedentary behavior of 654 older adults from the South Region of Brazil. The participants were evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; Mini-Mental State Exam; Geriatric Anxiety Scale; and the scales Geriatric Depression, Purpose in Life, Perceived Stress, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Life. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis (p < .05). No significant (p > .05) correlation was found between the sedentary behavior variables with self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis revealed that psychological variables explained 6% of the variance of sitting time during the week (R 2 = .06; F = 11.546; p < .01). Depression showed a positive prediction (β = −0.10; p = .040), while life satisfaction (β = −0.16; p = .001) and purpose in life (β = −0.10; p = .026) showed negative prediction. Psychological variables predicted only 3% of the variance of sitting time during the weekend (R 2 = .03; F = 5.629; p < .01), showing that life satisfaction had significant (p = .007) and negative (β = −0.13) association. Life satisfaction and purpose in life can be considered protector factors to sedentary behavior, while depression is a potentiating factor.

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Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia, and Nuria Garatachea

To objectively assess physical activity levels and sedentary behavior in a cohort of Spanish centenarians and their nonagenarian peers. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were objectively measured by an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer in centenarians (n = 18; 83% women; 100.8 ± 0.8 [100–103] years) and nonagenarians (n = 11; 91% women; 93.3 ± 2.5 [90–98] years). Centenarians showed less counts per minute (17.6 ± 7.1 vs. 46.1 ± 23.7, p = .003, d = 1.851) and steps per day (455 ± 237 vs. 1,249 ± 776, p = .007, d = 1.587) than nonagenarians. The daily number of sedentary breaks was also lower in the former (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 6.7 ± 2.0, p = .019, d = 0.971). When observing time distribution, the most active day period in both groups was the morning, with a peak between 10:00 and 11:59. This data suggest that the decline in physical activity levels continues to worsen until the end of the human lifespan.