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Ceyda Mumcu and Gil Fried

provide the right information and product via the right tools. For instance, MLS performs value-based segmentation via cluster analysis. Fans are grouped into segments based on their customer lifetime value, and then a profile for each segment is developed by adding demographic, geographic, and behavioral

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Pierre Chifflet

In the last decade in France, the sport supply has changed due to a diversified demand. To understand this supply system, strategic analysis is used. Such an analysis allows characterization of the French sport system and identification of the transformations caused by social, cultural, economic, and political changes. This article provides evidence about the construction of a “mixed” national system linking sport federations to the state and, up to the 1980s, favoring high-performance sport. Evidence is also provided that since the 1980s, a system that takes into account economic profitability as well as individual needs has responded to diversified objectives. Local political administrations have thus played a preponderant role in sport policy, but the commercialization of sport has also competed with public politics.

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Stephen Zwolinsky, James McKenna, Andy Pringle, Paul Widdop, Claire Griffiths, Michelle Mellis, Zoe Rutherford and Peter Collins

Background:

Increasingly the health impacts of physical inactivity are being distinguished from those of sedentary behavior. Nevertheless, deleterious health prognoses occur when these behaviors combine, making it a Public Health priority to establish the numbers and salient identifying factors of people who live with this injurious combination.

Methods:

Using an observational between-subjects design, a nonprobability sample of 22,836 participants provided data on total daily activity. A 2-step hierarchical cluster analysis identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing variables. Univariate analyses assessed significant cluster differences.

Results:

High levels of sitting clustered with low physical activity. The Ambulatory & Active cluster (n = 6254) sat for 2.5 to 5 h·d−1 and were highly active. They were significantly younger, included a greater proportion of males and reported low Indices of Multiple Deprivation compared with other clusters. Conversely, the Sedentary & Low Active cluster (n = 6286) achieved ≤60 MET·min·wk−1 of physical activity and sat for ≥8 h·d−1. They were the oldest cluster, housed the largest proportion of females and reported moderate Indices of Multiple Deprivation.

Conclusions:

Public Health systems may benefit from developing policy and interventions that do more to limit sedentary behavior and encourage light intensity activity in its place.

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Changhwan Kim and Susan Y. Kim Korea

Sport center managers are likely to maximize member satisfaction by developing products or services that are tailored to the different groups of sport center members. A necessary step, then, is to identify different segments of sport center members. This study attempts to identify sport center segments in Seoul, Korea, as determined by the members' attitudes toward 33 service items. A 2-stage cluster analysis approach in which the Ward's minimum variance method is used at the first stage and the K-means method is used at the second stage was employed by using the SPSS statistical package. This yielded 5 member segments that were then analyzed by employing ANOVA or chi-square to determine how they differ in their attitudes toward service attributes, demographics, socioeconomics, motivations, and usage patterns. For those variable responses showing a difference, an analyses of the nature of differences helped profile the members in the 5 segments.

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Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers and Rakié Cham

body mass index (BMI) influence parameters, particularly in large segments such as the thigh and trunk. 16 Thus, the current study, using in vivo dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data, aims to objectively quantify the impact of trunk segmentation method on trunk BSPs in normal weight and morbidly

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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

, spectatorship and participation? The results can also offer sport managers valuable insights for developing products and effective segmentation strategies. Research Model H-MSC was developed by adapting the hierarchical approach of Mowen’s (2000) meta-theoretical model of motivation and personality (3M model

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Steven J. Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller and Rod S. Barrett

procedure. 18 All 3DUS calibration, acquisition, and image segmentation procedures were performed using the Stradwin software package (Stradwin 4.71, Cambridge University, UK). Previous work has established the accuracy and repeatability of our freehand 3DUS system for in vivo measurement of AT morphology

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Nancy Barber and Mark E. Havitz

Howard (1992) examined U.S. adult participation in six sport and fitness activities for the period 1980 to 1989. This study extended Howard's research in a Canadian context for 10 sport and fitness activities for the period 1987 to 1996 using data from Print Measurement Bureau (PMB). Participation rates declined for 7 of the 10 activities over the 10-year period. Consistent with Howard's conclusions, usage-rate segmentation demonstrated that very small percentages of the Canadian adult population account for a large majority of total participation. Also consistent, 1996 participation rates split by gender revealed that women exhibit less participation, measured as percentages of all participants and among avid participants, as compared with 1987. Extending Howard's work, segmentation of participants based on age suggested that the older population in 1996 participated more than did the older population in 1987. Marketing implications, especially for reaching sedentary unresponsive markets, are discussed.

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Brendan Dwyer, Greg Greenhalgh and Carrie LeCrom

The sport marketplace is overcrowded, and contemporary sport fans have more choices than ever. This makes it difficult for new teams, leagues, and sports to enter the marketplace. In addition, a cultural oligarchy of mainstream sport leagues currently dominates media coverage. As a result, marketers and managers of emerging sports need to understand the attributes for which sport fans connect with entities. Little is known, however, about the differences between fans of niche (emerging or nonmainstream) sports and their mainstream-sport counterparts. Guided by social-identity theory, this study explored the dispositional and behavioral differences between niche- and mainstream-sport fans as a means of psychometric and behavioral segmentation. In particular, an individual’s need for uniqueness and communication behaviors were compared. The results suggest that dispositional differences between the segments were minimal. However, potentially important behavioral differences were uncovered related to how sport fans assimilate with others and advertise their sport affiliations.

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Brian M. Mills, Steven Salaga and Scott Tainsky

We add to the recent ticket market literature by using a unique, disaggregated, and proprietary data set of primary market ticket sales transactions from a National Basketball Association team that includes previously unavailable information on date of purchase, customer location, and other consumer demographics. We find that local and out-of-market fans differ in their total purchase amounts, with out-of-market fans spending more than local consumers, on average, and differential spending effects based on the home team win probability. In particular, this differential behavior has important implications for Rottenberg’s uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. We find evidence that interest in visiting team quality dominates interest in perceived contest uncertainty, fitting the reference-dependent preference model in the context of low local team quality. Further, these findings also have important implications related to market segmentation and dynamic ticket pricing in professional sport.