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Danae Dinkel, Dipti Dev, Yage Guo, Emily Hulse, Zainab Rida, Ami Sedani, and Brian Coyle

Improving the child care environment is a promising venue to increase physical activity levels and potentially prevent chronic diseases. 8 The Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Go NAP SACC) is one existing evidence-based program for improving health outcomes through physical

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Rebecca L. Vivrette, Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Jennifer L. Martin, Karen R. Josephson, and B. Josea Kramer

Objective:

To determine seniors’ beliefs about falls and design a fall-risk self-assessment and educational materials to promote early identification of evidence-based fall risks and encourage prevention behaviors.

Methods:

Focus groups with community-dwelling seniors, conducted in two phases to identify perceptions about fall risks and risk reduction and to assess face validity of the fall-risk self-assessment and acceptability of educational materials.

Results:

Lay perception of fall risks was in general concordance with evidence-based research. Maintaining independence and positive tone were perceived as key motivators for fall prevention. Seniors intended to use information in the educational tool to stimulate discussions about falls with health care providers.

Implications:

An evidence-based, educational fall-risk self-assessment acceptable to older adults can build on existing lay knowledge about fall risks and perception that falls are a relevant problem and can educate seniors about their specific risks and how to minimize them.

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Barbara Ewens Cusimano

This study investigated change in verbal teacher behavior due to a planned intervention on inservice training in self-assessment of audiotaped lessons and goal setting. The subjects were 15 elementary physical education teachers. A pretest-posttest control group experimental design was utilized. Verbal teacher behavior was assessed by event and duration recording. Change in verbal teacher behavior was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Following intervention there was a statistically significant interaction for positive specific feedback, F(7) = .0015, p < .05, and corrective specific feedback, F(7) = .0417, p < .05. No statistically significant difference was evident for acceptance of students’ skill performance ideas. It appears that positive specific feedback and corrective specific feedback can be modified through the use of a planned intervention package including self-assessment and goal-setting.

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Andy Vasily, Tim Fletcher, Doug Gleddie, and Déirdre Ní Chróinín

cycling allowed them to use consistent language that facilitated planning, reflection, instruction, and self-assessment. In the following excerpt from his blog, Andy explained how challenge was made explicit to students during the self-assessment process: If a [task] is impossible to the student, they

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Nancy A. Burkhalter and Janice C. Wendt

Alienation from physical education causes students to withdraw emotionally and physically from participation in classes. In addition, belief in one’s competence in physical activity and physical fitness appears to influence both participation in physical activity and fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between physical factors (fitness performance and strength measures), psychological factors (alienation from physical education and two types of perceived physical competence), gender, and age in middle school children. Participants in this study were 242 children (138 girls, 104 boys) enrolled in 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade physical education classes. Data were collected on alienation from physical education; perceived competence toward physical fitness and toward physical activity; and grip strength, standing long jump, mile run, percent body fat, and body mass index. Using factor scores, a two-step regression procedure revealed that (a) gender and perceived fitness competence were significant predictors (p < .05) of fitness, explaining 41% of the variance, and (b) age, alienation, and perceived physical activity competence were significant predictors of strength, explaining 25% of the variance. Independent of gender and age, the psychological variables of perceived physical competence toward fitness and alienation are related to physical performance. Highly alienated youth were less fit, and children with lower perceptions of physical competence were less fit.

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Katherine Alaimo, Ellen M. Bassett, Risa Wilkerson, Karen Petersmarck, Jennifer Mosack, David Mendez, Chris Coutts, Lisa Grost, and Lori Stegmier

Background:

This project updated and improved the Promoting Active Communities Program (PAC), a Web-based assessment that enables communities to scrutinize their programs, policies, and environments related to physical activity, generating ideas and community commitment for improvements.

Methods:

A literature review, focus groups, and expert review guided PAC improvements.

Results:

Over 150 articles and audit measures in the fields of transportation, public health, and urban planning were reviewed. Indicators were identified, categorized, and evaluated for use in the PAC. Focus-group participants communicated motivations, processes, and obstacles for completing the PAC and developing an action plan. Participants requested technical information to guide them in achieving active-living environments.

Conclusions:

Information gathered was used to improve the PAC Web site. A technical assistance document, Design Guidelines for Active Michigan Communities, was created to aid communities in creating active-living environments. The new PAC and Design Guidelines are available for public use at www.mihealthtools.org/communities.

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Cate A. Egan, Christopher B. Merica, Grace Goc Karp, Karie Orendorff, and Hayley Beth McKown

Northwest. The university was located in a rural area in the Pacific Northwest. Data Collection For case studies, multiple sources of evidence were needed to address a broad range of perceptions and evidence from participants ( Yin, 2014 ). For the purpose of this study, pre/post self-assessment surveys

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Jane P. Sheldon

One’s perceived competence relates to participation and effort and can vary depending on the self-evaluation sources that athletes value. Ruble and Frey (1991) theorized that phase of skill development may affect one’s preference for different sorts of competence information. The present study tested Ruble and Frey’s model using a sample of 466 adult tennis players. Skill level was athletes’ United States Tennis Association rating. Participants rated the personal importance of tennis and the importance of different sources of self-assessment information. Results showed that beginners were more likely to value temporal comparisons, and advanced players were more likely to value social comparisons. Players rating tennis as highly important were more likely to value temporal comparisons and effort for self-assessment. The findings support Ruble and Frey’s model.

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Barrie Gordon

This study examined a six-month implementation of the Responsibility Model in a New Zealand secondary school. Data were collected through interviews, observations and student self-assessments. The implementation was found to be successful in developing positive, supportive and well-behaved classes in physical education. The majority of students developed a greater understanding of personal and social responsibility and became more personally and socially responsible in class. For most students, however, this understanding was firmly associated with physical education and they generally showed little understanding of the potential for the transfer of learning to other contexts.