ours” (p. 66). Also related to basketball, Billings et al. ( 2009 ) did a qualitative text analysis of a match telecast in four different countries during the 2008 Olympics based on self-categorization theory with dichotomies like us/them or I/they. Aside from the different structure of the telecasts
Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska, and Barbara Stelzner
Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko, and Wonseok (Eric) Jang
and self-categorization theory ( Hornsey, 2008 ). The social identity approach assumes that part of individuals’ sense of self is derived from their membership in a social group (i.e., social identity; Tajfel, 2010 ). At any given time, a certain social identity becomes salient, and people categorize
Andrew C. Billings, Paul J. MacArthur, Simon Licen, and Dan Wu
Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. China in men’s basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theory, fans, and network gatekeepers are postulated.
Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin, and Andrew C. Billings
in terms of the players themselves. The interest here is in descriptions of American and non-American players (with a largely American audience on the receiving end) and thus it is important to consider self-categorization theory ( Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987 ). Self-categorization
Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet, and Benoit Louvet
the police. Their results showed that the perception of out-groups differed according to whichever social identity predominated. When American students self-categorized more as Americans than as students, they felt more anger in reaction to Muslims (considered as a threatening out-group) and less
Bryan E. Denham
about the treatment of minorities ( Brown, Jackson, et al. 2003 ; Zestcott & Brown, 2015 ). The present study draws on contact ( Allport, 1954 ; Dovidio, Love, Schellhaas, & Hewstone, 2017 ; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006 ), social identity ( Hogg, Abrams, & Brewer, 2017 ; Tajfel & Turner, 1986 ), and self-categorization
John S.W. Spinda
This study explored first-, second-, and third-person effects related to the outcome of televised National Football League (NFL) games among an online sample of NFL fans (N = 646). Overall findings indicated that first-person and second-person perceptual biases were projected toward comparison groups that were labeled as fans of other NFL teams or as the average person. In addition, support was found for both first and second-person behavioral effects in the form of postgame Basking In Reflected Glory (BIRGing) and Cutting Off Reflected Failure (CORFing) behaviors. However, the strength of NFL fans’ team identification was a more robust predictor of these effects than NFL fans self-reported BIRGing/CORFing behaviors. These findings support the hypothesis that self-enhancement processes (i.e., BIRGing/CORFing) are usurped by self-categorization processes when a social identity is made salient (i.e., NFL team identification). Areas of future research and limitations are also addressed.
Lindsey J. Meân and Jeffrey W. Kassing
The purpose of this study was to examine identity and spectator/fan communication at youth sporting events. Data were collected through naturalistic observation of 44 youth sporting events. The median age range of the athletes was 6–11 years. Critical discourse analysis revealed the enactment of overlapping and conflicting identities (sports fan/spectator, coach, and parent) and the re/production of the ideology of winning (at all costs) and aggressive competition, rather than participation, support, and “unconditional” encouragement. In particular, the enactment or performance of sports identities, including identification with athletes, was observed to overlap with the enactment of parental identities and identification with children in ways that suggested that the salient issue was enhancement of parent self-categorization as sports spectator/fan, coach, and parent of a great athlete through the success of the child-athlete. That is, talk and identity performance were less about the children and more about parents’ identities.
regarding the acceptability of the Washington Redskins. These results illuminate two differing perspectives: a need for change and the status quo. Before Native American mascots are deconstructed, self-categorization is employed as a theoretical background to frame the overall discussion surrounding mascots
Rebecca A. Alt
, whether that involved indigenous persons (or not) or sports fans (or not)” ( Billings & Black, 2018 , p. 63). Then, a variety of theories (self-categorization and post-colonial theory) and methods in addition to the survey (textual analyses, case studies, and interviews) were used to contextualize and