Research on exercise identity (EXID) indicates that it is related to negative affect when exercisers are inconsistent or relapse. Although identity theory suggests that causal attributions about this inconsistency elicit negative self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, no EXID studies have examined this for exercise relapse. Weiner’s attribution-based theory of interpersonal motivation (2010) offers a means of testing the attribution-emotion link. Using both frameworks, we examined whether EXID and attributional properties predicted negative emotions for exercise relapse. Participants (n = 224) read an exercise relapse vignette, and then completed EXID, attributions, and emotion measures. Hierarchical multiple regression models using EXID and the attributional property of controllability significantly predicted each of shame and guilt, R 2 adjusted = .09, ps ≤ .001. Results support identity theory suggestions and Weiner’s specific attribution-emotion hypothesis. This first demonstration of an interlinking of EXID, controllability, and negative self-conscious emotions offers more predictive utility using complementary theories than either theory alone.
Parminder K. Flora, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Lawrence R. Brawley and Kevin S. Spink
Catherine M. Sabiston, Jennifer Brunet, Kent C. Kowalski, Philip M. Wilson, Diane E. Mack and Peter R. E. Crocker
The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R 2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.
Amber D. Mosewich, Kent C. Kowalski, Catherine M. Sabiston, Whitney A. Sedgwick and Jessica L. Tracy
Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; M age = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
, 2016 ). 1 Therefore, the work of Gaudreau provides an interesting counterpoint to which the achievement-specific vulnerability hypothesis can be tested. Self-Conscious Emotion In tests of the achievement-specific vulnerability hypothesis, self-conscious emotions are likely to be informative. This is
Jenna D. Gilchrist, David E. Conroy and Catherine M. Sabiston
of behavior in sport and exercise contexts. Despite evidence that these self-conscious emotions regulate behavior, researchers have focused on examining the experience of currently felt emotions despite claims that anticipated emotions also regulate behavior ( Baumeister, Vohs, DeWall, & Zhang
Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring
studies have also reported that anticipated regret and guilt about potential doping were inversely associated with doping intentions (e.g., Barkoukis et al., 2015 ; Lazuras et al., 2015 ; Ring & Kavussanu, 2017 ). Taken together with past work, our findings suggest that negatively valenced, self-conscious
Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement
( 2011 ) investigated the applicability of self-compassion within the context of self-evaluative thoughts (shame and guilt) and self-conscious emotions in female athletes. Results indicated that self-compassion may help female athletes respond to situations of perceived failure with lower negative
Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson
Although the benefits associated with sport participation have been well documented (e.g., Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, & Payne, 2013 ; Oja et al., 2015 ), many challenges associated with sport participation, such as negative evaluations by others and of oneself, can result in negative self-conscious