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Desmond McEwan, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Steven R. Bray

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depleted self-control strength on skill-based sports task performance. Sixty-two participants completed the following: a baseline dart-tossing task (20 tosses), with measures of accuracy, reaction time, and myoelectrical activity of the arms taken throughout; a self-control depletion (experimental) or a nondepletion (control) manipulation; and a second round of dart tossing. As hypothesized, participants in the experimental condition had poorer mean accuracy at Round 2 than control condition participants, and a significant decline in accuracy from Round 1 to Round 2. Experimental condition participants also demonstrated poorer consistency in accuracy compared with control condition participants at Round 2 and a significant deterioration in consistency from Round 1 to Round 2. In addition, consistency in reaction time improved significantly for the control group but not for the experimental group. The results of this study provide evidence that ego depletion effects occur in the performance of a skill-based sports task.

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Roy David Samuel, Guy Matzkin, Saar Gal, and Chris Englert

, to complete his supervised applied training with the national team (under the first author’s supervision). The fourth author is an expert in the domain of self-control in sports and guided the intervention and study design. In this case study, we initially conducted a needs analysis concerning the

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Gro Jordalen, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Natalie Durand-Bush, and Andreas Ivarsson

regulate behaviors and control thoughts, emotions, attention, and cognitive impulses is important to successfully reach long-term goals ( Baumeister & Vohs, 2016b ; Englert, 2016 , 2017 ). This self-control strength will likely help athletes in their strenuous physical and mental exercises, as it makes

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Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach

impact of trait self-control, executive functions, and their interactions on the intention–behavior gap in the context of physical activity. Trait Self-Control and Physical Activity Behavior Although motivation to carry out a goal-directed behavior is important, the ability to translate this motivation

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller, and Keith R. Lohse

studies have shown increased learning that is concurrent to increased intrinsic motivation, often using a language adapted version the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (or IMI; Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994 ). For instance, Post, Aiken, Laughlin, and Fairbrother ( 2016 ) found that self-control

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Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi, and Jared M. Porter

is the topic of self-controlled practice. Adopting the method of self-controlled practice is a strategy in which the learner has some control over one or more practice variables ( Sanli, Patterson, Bray, & Lee, 2013 ). For example, if an individual is performing a new exercise, the instructor may

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Rafael A. B. Tedesqui and Bradley W. Young

’s behaviors to reach personal goals ( McCrae & Löckenhoff, 2010 ); self-control —the ability to control thoughts and emotions, and resist temptations ( Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004 ); and grit —the tendency to pursue long-term goals with perseverance and passion ( Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews

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Marcelo Eduardo de Souza Nunes, Umberto Cesar Correa, Marina Gusman Thomazi Xavier de Souza, Luciano Basso, Daniel Boari Coelho, and Suely Santos

of the questions historically asked by researchers seeking to understand motor learning and performance ( Chen & Singer, 1992 ; Magill & Anderson, 2012 ; Schmidt & Lee, 2011 ). In recent years, these questions have been investigated mainly in terms of a contemporary perspective named “self-controlled

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Tracey Devonport, Andrew Lane, and Christopher L. Fullerton

Evidence from sequential-task studies demonstrate that if the first task requires self-control, then performance on the second task is compromised (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). In a novel extension of previous sequential-task research, the first self-control task in the current study was a sport psychology intervention, paradoxically proposed to be associated with improved performance. Eighteen participants (9 males, 9 females; mean age = 21.6 years, SD = 1.6), none of whom had previously performed the experimental task or motor imagery, were randomly assigned to an imagery condition or a control condition. After the collection of pretest data, participants completed the same 5-week physical training program designed to enhance swimming tumble-turn performance. Results indicated that performance improved significantly among participants from both conditions with no significant intervention effect. Hence, in contrast to expected findings from application of the imagery literature, there was no additive effect after an intervention. We suggest practitioners should be cognisant of the potential effects of sequential tasks, and future research is needed to investigate this line of research.

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Jeffrey D. Graham and Steven R. Bray

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.